Anthropology 2100 Lecture Notes - Stone Tool, Upper Paleolithic, Canine Tooth

40 views2 pages
Published on 31 Jan 2013
Oct, 29, 2012
Early Homo Sapiens and Neanderthals
Early/Archaic Homo Sapiens ca 400,000-70,000:
-Increase in cranial capacity to 1125 to 1400 cc with an average of 1260 cc
-Homo erectus’ mean cranial capacity was only 960 cc
-Specimens between ca. 400,000 and ca. 200,000 years old are sometimes called Homo heidelbergensis
-Archaic Homo sapiens from Greece Petralona 1 (.4 my old?)
-Archaic Homo sapiens from France Arago XXI (.4 mya)
-Archaic Homo sapiens from Germany Steinheim (.25 mya)
-Archaic Homo sapiens from China Dali (.2 mya)
-Have a rounded cranial vault and cranial capacity of 1120 cc
-Archaic Homo sapiens from Zambia at Broken Hill (.3 mya)
Neanderthal Traits:
1. Prognathic lower face, large nasal cavity 2. Large cheekbones, prominent brow ridges
3. Large front teeth, strong chewing apparatus 4. No chin, or a very small chin
5. A long, low cranial vault with a cranial capacity 1250 - 1740 cc (mean 1480 cc)
6. Occipital bun on European specimens
7. Post-cranial skeleton is short but robust with thick, slightly bowed long bones
Neanderthal Economy:
-Hunted small-medium sized animals (reindeer were a major food source)
-Also hunted woolly mammoth and rhinoceros and La Cotte de St. Brelade in the Jersey Islands in the English
Channel shows 20 mammoths and 5 woolly rhinos were stampeded off a cliff
-We have limited evidence for plant foods
-Binford says Neanderthals captured food “on an encounter basis” and there was no planning but others disagree
Neanderthal Social Organization:
-Lived in small groups at small sites that were usually caves and open air structures
-Accumulation of debris suggest they were more sedentary than modern hunter-gatherers
-They had band organization and informal leadership
-Binford questions evidence for social structure and “family” life
Burial of the Dead:
-La Chapelle aux Saint has grave offerings of a bison leg and tools
-La Ferassie France has a man, woman, 2 children and 2 infants buried together that are possibly a family
-Amud cave Israel has a red deer maxilla buried with infant
-Shanidar Cave Iraq has a handicapped male who would have required a support network and this is a “flower
burial” because pollen from spring flowers was found in soil around the body
Neanderthal Culture:
-Intentional burial suggests belief systems but there is little evidence of art work
-Arcy-sur-Cure France has 142 grooved and perforated canine teeth and small ivory beads that were likely used for
personal ornamentation and this suggests symbol systems
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.