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Anthropology 2100 Lecture Notes - Qin Shi Huang, Sanxingdui, Scapulimancy

Course Code
ANTH 2100
Peter Timmins

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Feb, 04, 2013
Early States in Southeast Asia and the Shang Civilization
Major River Systems:
-Red River in Vietnam -Mekong River and Tonle Sap -Chao Phraya and Middle Thailand
-Many sites are located along the Mun River in Thailand
-All flooded their banks creating an ideal environment for wet rice agriculture (requires water 5-50 cm deep)
Early Rice Farming in Southeast Asia 2000-500 BC:
-Had bronze working around 2000 BC and there was trade in copper ore and bronze figurines
-Social ranking evident in cemeteries (ex: at Ban Na Di in northern Thailand) and this reflects wealth from rice land
-There was ironworking by 500 BC and this stimulated craft production and trade
Noen U-Loke Site Thailand 400BC-300AD:
-Investigated by Charles Higham and there was an occupation mound 5 metres tall surrounded by moats and the
site had five distinct occupations and furnaces for iron forging
-Burial 27 had two bronze torcs, bronze bangles, two socketed bronze spearheads, and pottery vessels with
remains of complete fish, shell discs, and four tiger canines
-Has an Iron Age burial cluster and individuals were buried on “rice beds” (burnt rice) and they had them agate
pendants, and bronze jewellery including rings, bangles, earrings, and bronze bells around the ankles
-There were some males with very high status and there was an infant with many graves goods that suggests
hereditary status and an economy focused on rice cultivation and cattle herding
Dong Son Culture 1000 BC 43 AD:
-Located in the Red River valley of North Vietnam and it was lead by “Lac Lords” who controlled rice land and trade
-A major Dong Son site is at Co Loa near Hanoi which has massive fortifications surrounded by moats (600 ha)
-There were bronze drums found there with different scenes decorating them
Boat Burials:
-Dong Son was probably organized as a chiefdom and high status boat burials were carved out of tree trunks
-The Dong Son people were conquered by Han Chinese in AD 43
Thailand and Cambodia 1-800 AD:
-They were involved in seagoing trade and they were controlled by Indian merchants but they developed larger
and more efficient ships
-Buddhism diffused from India to China in the first century BC and local chiefs gained wealth and prestige and they
circumvented egalitarian norms because they adopted Buddhism and a concept of divine kingship
Southeast Asian Mandalas:
-Mandala refers to a kingdom with a fluid political structure lacking territorial limits and it was based on alliance
-The Funan (AD 200-546) was on the Mekong River delta and they had major trade with Chinese
-The port city of Oc Eo (450 ha) was on an extensive canal system that linked settlements and they had a major
jewellery industry and Angkor Borei was linked to Oc Eo by canals
-The Chenla culture (AD 611-802) was located along the Mekong River where there was a group of competing
mandalas and rulers and Jayavarman I had centralized control over land and labour
The Angkor State (Khmer Kingdom) 802-1430 AD:
-Located in central Cambodia and founded by Jayavarman II who established himself as a god-king (a reincarnation
of the Hindu god Shiva) and he built massive temples at Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom which housed religious
symbols and served as mausoleums for kings
Angkor Wat:
-Was built in the 12th century AD by King Surayvarman and it is the largest religious building in the world with a
complex that measures 1.5 x 1.2 km
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