Minoan and Mycenaean Civilization and the Development of Complexity in Europe.docx

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Published on 18 Feb 2013
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Minoan and Mycenaean Civilization and the Development of Complexity in Europe
Turkey:
-Schliemann’s Excavations at Hissarlik had initial credibility problems and he organized the first multi-disciplinary
team in archaeology in the 1870s that demonstrated that Hissarlik was Troy
Göbekli Tepe:
-It is an ancient temple in South Eastern Turkey dated to the Late Pre Pottery Neolithic A and B, ca 11,000 -10,000
BP and it consists of 25 acres and seven stone circles
-Only stone and bone tools have been found because at the time ceramics hadn't been invented yet and the site
was excavated between 1995 and 2005 by Dr. Klaus Schmidt
-The circles range from 30 to 100 feet in diameter and are surrounded by rectangular stone walls about six feet
high and many of the pillars were carved with animal figure reliefs and this is entirely unexpected at such an early
date and the fact it was built by people who were still hunter gatherers
Early Towns in Anatolia:
Hissarlik (Troy) - 3500-1200BC:
-Started as a small fortress and grew into a large fortified town by 2300 BC and it was attacked by the Greeks ca
1250 BC
Alacahoyok - 2400-2000 BC:
-Has 13 royal burials with ornaments, weapons, and pottery that was found under a Hittite layer with gold, silver,
copper and bronze
Kanesh - 1900 BC:
-They had much trade with Mesopotamia and there was an Assyrian merchant colony outside its walls (a Karum or
trading centre) and although Kanesh was independent Assyria controlled trade
Mediterranean States 2000-1000 BC:
-Egypt
-Mitanni in the upper Euphrates region and ca 1360 BC it was conquered by the Hittites and in 1300 BC it became
an Assyrian province
The Hittites 1650-1200 BC:
-Hatti was the a state of the Hittites in Anatolia and there were many skilled diplomats and traders and it
originated in Kanesh and the capital was at Boghazkoy and they had a feudal system of land ownership
-They were at war with Egypt over control of trade but they made a peace treaty with them in 1269 BC
-They smelted iron by 1500 BC and gave them an advantage in warfare but they were invaded by foreigners in
1200 BC
Trouble in the Mediterranean:
-The Hittite collapse was the result of invasion and rebellion and ca 1200 BC maritime trade collapsed
-There was raiding by bandits and pirates who were known as the “Sea Peoples” and there was a “dark age” lasting
300 years while a coalition of villages and nomadic groups formed the state of Israel ca 1000 BC
Phoenicia - 1100-700 BC:
-There were ten cities including Tyre, Sidon and Byblos and they were sailors and traders who moved throughout
the Mediterranean and they founded Carthage in N. Africa
-They exported a purple dye, extracted from murex (a marine snail) and purple dyed textiles were a mark of royal
rank and Tyre in modern Lebanon was the capital
-They were conquered by the Assyrians in 700 BC and by Alexander the Great in 332 BC
Carthage - 800 146 BC:
-They controlled western Mediterranean trade and expanded their influence and they built massive harbours and
efficient fighting ships and they were perceived as a threat by Rome in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC
-Carthage was burned by the Romans in 146 BC and it was rebuilt to became a Roman colony
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Document Summary

Minoan and mycenaean civilization and the development of complexity in europe. Schliemann"s excavations at hissarlik had initial credibility problems and he organized the first multi-disciplinary team in archaeology in the 1870s that demonstrated that hissarlik was troy. It is an ancient temple in south eastern turkey dated to the late pre pottery neolithic a and b, ca 11,000 -10,000. Bp and it consists of 25 acres and seven stone circles. Only stone and bone tools have been found because at the time ceramics hadn"t been invented yet and the site was excavated between 1995 and 2005 by dr. klaus schmidt. Started as a small fortress and grew into a large fortified town by 2300 bc and it was attacked by the greeks ca. Has 13 royal burials with ornaments, weapons, and pottery that was found under a hittite layer with gold, silver, copper and bronze.

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