Anthropology 2222F/G Lecture Notes - Woodland Period, Spear-Thrower, Hand Axe

25 views2 pages
Published on 12 Oct 2013
Department
Professor
Oct, 09, 2013
The Early Woodland Period 900BC-1AD
Developments:
-There was domestication of plants starting in the south, clay pots that were very crude and there was a lot of
continuity with the Late Archaic because they were the same people that just made lifestyle changes
-Early cultigens were specially selected for their thin seed coats and early maturity and the most important plants
were first domesticated in South America and they then spread to the north where they became staples by 800 AD
Introduction of Ceramics:
-They are very important to archaeologists but perhaps not so much for the people that used them because it was
adopted very slowly
-Clay offered them more design choices than stone so there was the development of regional styles and their time-
space relations are good things for us to study (ceramic seriation)
-We can look at their function in everyday life and ploughs destroy it easily but there were some groups that just
never made it part of their life because it was not practical for very mobile people to carry the heavy fragile pots
Complexes:
Meadowood:
-Has similar distributions as Middlesex extending in the Eastern Great Lakes to New York
-Cache blades were triangular biface preforms for projectile points that are notched with either a concave or
convex base
-Bird stones are sometimes found in graves but the popped eyes were a new addition to the old style and they
were maybe used as atlatl weights with symbolic value (they are ambiguous so it may be a supernatural animal)
-They had slate working which is usually obvious at sites because it leaves a lot of debris behind
-Their pottery was very thick but it commonly breaks along the coils and there are cord marks on the inside and
outside that probably result from paddles being wrapped in some twine like plant material leaving their impression
as the paddles were used in holding up the coils when being made
-The pottery is commonly found in pits which is important because it is undisturbed by ploughs
-They almost always use Onondaga chert and there are huge concentrations of preform blades which were
probably made en masse for trade and they commonly recycled tools into drills or by retouching hafting sections
into scrapers
-It is rare to find post moulds associated with their camps but they possibly used wall trenches where the moulds
were placed but we don’t really understand their purpose
-They had special purpose sites for things like fishing or gathering foods (MSR sites were in wetlands for special
purpose sites) and Scaccia is a site in New York had storage pits for small plants
-The Beaverbrook is an extensive sits with subterranean features and there was a possible house structure and
crescent shaped features but these are not too large
-There are also possible post mould marks or a trench and for them slate working was common and they had
various ground stone tools like axes which indicate heavy wood working
Bruce Boyd:
-There were cremations of adults and children and none of the burials were primary and people were also
disarticulated and bundled which shows that there was a time lapse between death and burial
-These complexes are found mostly in South Western Ontario
Middlesex:
-This complex extends more northward into Quebec and the St. Lawrence
-The Fitzgerald site is part of this complex and they are similar to the Adena culture but it developed out of the
Meadowood and just expanded into a broader area
-Their diagnostics come mostly from burials but these are probably not like their day-to-day tools
-The Adena and Kramer tools have lobed hafting devices and some show no evidence of use when they are found
in graves which shows they were just for ritual purposes
-In the Killarney Bay area there are elaborate graves with copper items, beaver pelts, cache blades (different from
Meadowood examples because they are ovate), and basketry and this site it located quite far north
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

There was domestication of plants starting in the south, clay pots that were very crude and there was a lot of continuity with the late archaic because they were the same people that just made lifestyle changes. Early cultigens were specially selected for their thin seed coats and early maturity and the most important plants were first domesticated in south america and they then spread to the north where they became staples by 800 ad. They are very important to archaeologists but perhaps not so much for the people that used them because it was adopted very slowly. Clay offered them more design choices than stone so there was the development of regional styles and their time- space relations are good things for us to study (ceramic seriation) Has similar distributions as middlesex extending in the eastern great lakes to new york.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.