Anthropology 2229F/G Lecture Notes - Fictive Kinship, Sodality, Achieved Status

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Published on 18 Jul 2012
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Lecture 26 Part 2 Sociological Organization: Tribes
Tribes
o Small
Within 100s
Higher population density
o Less fluid membership
Not as easy to move from one local group to the other
More formalized/standardized
o Fictive kinship (clans), marriage and sodalities
Kinship very important as well as marriage relationships
Creates feelings of social ties
Hard to trace exact kinship ties, creation of fictive kinship to tie
people together
Number of generations, kinship links people between
generations through decent
Emergence of formal social subunits that link
generation (decent groups), real or imagined
People believed that they are descended from a
common ancestor
Becomes so large and complicated, they invent a fictive
ancestor
o Called clans
o Can be human or an animal
Need a way to tie clans together, marry someone from
outsider your clan
Also form other social groups, called sodalities
o Voluntary organizations
o Carry out specific tasks for the benefit of
everyone
o Formally recognized groups
o Egalitarian
Achieved status: good orator, good hunter, personal ability, etc.
Recognize subgroups, based on descent
Not born with specific rights
Not truly egalitarian, can have biases: based on age and gender
No power or authority, asked for advice
More opportunity to gain status in these larger societies
Decisions still made through consensus
Conflict more likely, no central authority; can lead to collapsing
of society
o Few specialists & part time specialists
Specialists, but still carry out many other tasks
Perform the same function
Based on age and gender
o Less mobile
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Document Summary

Lecture 26 part 2 sociological organization: tribes. Higher population density: less fluid membership. Not as easy to move from one local group to the other. More formalized/standardized: fictive kinship (clans), marriage and sodalities. Kinship very important as well as marriage relationships. Hard to trace exact kinship ties, creation of fictive kinship to tie people together. Number of generations, kinship links people between generations through decent. Emergence of formal social subunits that link generation (decent groups), real or imagined. People believed that they are descended from a common ancestor. Becomes so large and complicated, they invent a fictive ancestor: called clans, can be human or an animal. Need a way to tie clans together, marry someone from outsider your clan. Also form other social groups, called sodalities: voluntary organizations, carry out specific tasks for the benefit of everyone, formally recognized groups, egalitarian. Achieved status: good orator, good hunter, personal ability, etc.

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