Anthropology 2229F/G Lecture Notes - Achieved Status

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Published on 18 Jul 2012
Department
Lecture 26 Part 1 Sociological Organization
How do people organize themselves?
o Seen as evolutionary sequence of civilization
o Assumes populations were smaller and grew to become more
complex
o Criticized, cannot be rigid
Points on a continuum, arbitrary segments that can overlap
Criteria can be added or taken away, etc.
Highlight key principles
4 Basic Types of Society
o Bands
Hunter-gatherers, foragers
Small, less than 50 individuals
Generally in local groups
Not completely independent from all other groups, tied
into regional groupings that make up the ethnic unit
Fluid membership
Easy for people to move between groups
Necessary because:
o Have to be able to find mates, people of
marriageable age in your group very limited
o Match populations to fluctuating resource base
No central authority
o Way to solve disputes: leave the group
Few or no constraints on who you can associate with
Real kinship and marriage
Allows you to join other groups
Closer social bonds
Determines membership, through marriage or descent
Egalitarian
Achieved status
Everyone has equal rights and privileges
o Not really true in reality
Only biases in this society is based on age and sex
No marked status differences
No one has permanent rights different from the others
People of older age given more respect and status;
Status is achieved; gained during your lifetime
Strong egalitarian ethic, get rid of people trying to
No economic specialists
People make their own objects
Everyone a “jack of all trades”
Only specialists are non-economic specialists, usually
religious specialists
o Really just part time, do other things as well
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Document Summary

How do people organize themselves: seen as evolutionary sequence of civilization, assumes populations were smaller and grew to become more complex, criticized, cannot be rigid. Points on a continuum, arbitrary segments that can overlap. Criteria can be added or taken away, etc. 4 basic types of society: bands. Not completely independent from all other groups, tied into regional groupings that make up the ethnic unit. Easy for people to move between groups. Necessary because: have to be able to find mates, people of marriageable age in your group very limited, match populations to fluctuating resource base. No central authority: way to solve disputes: leave the group. Few or no constraints on who you can associate with. Everyone has equal rights and privileges: not really true in reality. Only biases in this society is based on age and sex. No one has permanent rights different from the others. People of older age given more respect and status;

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