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Lecture

Anthropology 2229F/G Lecture Notes - Sodality, Aristocracy


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 2229F/G
Professor
Christopher Ellis

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Lecture 26 Part 4 Sociological Organization: Early/Ancient States
Early/Ancient States
o Agriculture
Large cultivated areas, irrigation, etc.
o Large size (10,000s)
More people, new ways to organize the people
Can reach 100,000-200,000 people
Very high population density
o Not fluid
Have to be born into the group
Kinship, marriage, sodalities still exist and are important to
organization
o Territorial control
Defensive of their areas
Not dependent on kinship ties; but descent is still important
Have to follow the rules of the controlled area
Have to follow the rules of the central administration even if
you weren’t born into it
o Non-egalitarian
Divided into socio-political and socio-economic classes
Very rigid social classes
Aristocracy working class masses
Marked status differences
Distinctions based on property, private property becoming
more common
Wealthier have more property; e.g. villas, palaces, etc.
Ascribed leadership
Born into leadership role
Kings or queens, central decision makers
Groomed to be the leader
Birth right enforced by belief that they are descended
from the gods
o God-given right to them at birth
Leaders always have complete control and authority
Monopoly of force and the right to exercise it to enforce
their control
o Power over life and death
o Full time military, enforce the leader’s control
and rules of society
o Only the state has the right to use force
o Lots of full-time specialists/occupations
Administrative specialists appear
More willing to delegate authority, trust their minions
more than they did previously
E.g. religion/ritual, deal with provinces, etc.
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