Anthropology 2229F/G Lecture Notes - Sodality, Aristocracy

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Published on 18 Jul 2012
Department
Lecture 26 Part 4 Sociological Organization: Early/Ancient States
Early/Ancient States
o Agriculture
Large cultivated areas, irrigation, etc.
o Large size (10,000s)
More people, new ways to organize the people
Can reach 100,000-200,000 people
Very high population density
o Not fluid
Have to be born into the group
Kinship, marriage, sodalities still exist and are important to
organization
o Territorial control
Defensive of their areas
Not dependent on kinship ties; but descent is still important
Have to follow the rules of the controlled area
Have to follow the rules of the central administration even if
you weren’t born into it
o Non-egalitarian
Divided into socio-political and socio-economic classes
Very rigid social classes
Aristocracy working class masses
Marked status differences
Distinctions based on property, private property becoming
more common
Wealthier have more property; e.g. villas, palaces, etc.
Ascribed leadership
Born into leadership role
Kings or queens, central decision makers
Groomed to be the leader
Birth right enforced by belief that they are descended
from the gods
o God-given right to them at birth
Leaders always have complete control and authority
Monopoly of force and the right to exercise it to enforce
their control
o Power over life and death
o Full time military, enforce the leader’s control
and rules of society
o Only the state has the right to use force
o Lots of full-time specialists/occupations
Administrative specialists appear
More willing to delegate authority, trust their minions
more than they did previously
E.g. religion/ritual, deal with provinces, etc.
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Document Summary

Lecture 26 part 4 sociological organization: early/ancient states. Large cultivated areas, irrigation, etc: large size (10,000s) More people, new ways to organize the people. Very high population density: not fluid. Have to be born into the group. Kinship, marriage, sodalities still exist and are important to organization: territorial control. Not dependent on kinship ties; but descent is still important. Have to follow the rules of the controlled area. Have to follow the rules of the central administration even if you weren"t born into it: non-egalitarian. Distinctions based on property, private property becoming more common. Wealthier have more property; e. g. villas, palaces, etc. Birth right enforced by belief that they are descended from the gods: god-given right to them at birth. Leaders always have complete control and authority. More willing to delegate authority, trust their minions more than they did previously.

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