Anthropology 2229F/G Lecture Notes - Railways Act 1921, Ainu Language

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Published on 18 Jul 2012
School
Western University
Department
Anthropology
Course
Anthropology 2229F/G
Lecture 28 Community Level Organization
Community Level Organization
o How different areas are arranged in a site, not just individual houses
o Degree of Planning
More elaborate as society becomes more complex
More permanent as society becomes more complex
Layout a good reference point for social arrangement
Have to have central control to organize village
Centralized decision making hierarchy
o Social institutions
E.g. Iroquois
Status positions that were ranked, partly ascribed, but
also partly achieved (had to prove yourself, but had to
be born into the group)
Civil chiefs in charge of organizing villages, activities,
etc.
No central planning before 1300 AD, shifts in layout
starts after
o Houses oriented the same way, well planned
areas, etc.
o Very elaborate defensive works
o Must have had centralized decision making
o Grouping of structures
Could reflect clan distinctions
Organization through matrilineage (for the Iroquois), houses
made up lineages
Still need multiple lines of evidence to get an idea of social
distinctions!!
E.g. Aztecs divided up capital into different neighbourhoods,
called barrios, for different clans
Reflects clan distinctions
Common throughout Mesoamerica
o Hunter-Gatherer Society Community Layout
Individual houses were for families or extended families
Layout varies greatly: close together, spread out, circular,
linear, etc.
Closer together: Western Desert Aborigines, Kalahari hunter-
gatherers, Hadza (East Africa)
Also usually arranged in a patterned manner
Usually circular or semi-circular layout around a central
area
Lower population density
Ethic of sharing is very important
Little reliance on storage, live more day-to-day
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Document Summary

Community level organization: how different areas are arranged in a site, not just individual houses, degree of planning. More elaborate as society becomes more complex. More permanent as society becomes more complex. Layout a good reference point for social arrangement. Have to have central control to organize village. Centralized decision making hierarchy: social institutions. Status positions that were ranked, partly ascribed, but also partly achieved (had to prove yourself, but had to be born into the group) Civil chiefs in charge of organizing villages, activities, etc. No central planning before 1300 ad, shifts in layout starts after: houses oriented the same way, well planned areas, etc, very elaborate defensive works, must have had centralized decision making, grouping of structures. Organization through matrilineage (for the iroquois), houses made up lineages. Still need multiple lines of evidence to get an idea of social distinctions! Aztecs divided up capital into different neighbourhoods, called barrios, for different clans.

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