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Lecture 3

Anthropology 2235A/B Lecture 3: Lecture 3 DNA cases (Final)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 2235A/B
Professor
Eldon Molto
Lecture
3

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Lecture #3 1
Lecture #3 Case Studies in DNA Forensics
Evolution of Forensic DNA Analysis: Some Historic Snapshots
Pioneering work of Dr. Jefferey’s mid 1980s (RFLP technique)
oFirst case is the Pitchfork case in 1986-88 – first revolution in DNA
First case in the USA was Tommie Lee Andrews in 1987
RFLP 1st used in Canada in 1988-89 in McNally Case (John Waye DNA expert witness)
oWas used for 1st homicide for the Legere case in NB
oCFS in TO first case in July 1990 Terceira case (victim was Andrea Atkinson
PCR developed in mid 80s and was major reason RFLP was replaced by STR analysis in
mid 90s – 2nd revolution
PCR and STR analysis introduced to RCMP and CFS in 93-94
oGP Morin freed on the basis of STR analysis
DNA legislation in Canada – 1995 DNA warrant legislation and 1998 DNA identification act
Canadian national DNA Data Bank developed by RCMP (Ron Fourney) in 2000 – linked to COIS of
the USA
DNA used in mass disaster situations – Branch Davidian in 1993, TWA flight 1996, swiss air 1998,
9/11
PCR/thermocycler – concept for PCR was developed by Kary Mullis at Cetus Corp in 1984
Recolutionalized forensic DNA analysis in late 80s once it was perfected
First Canadian case it was used in was the R v Guy Paul Morin case
Evolution in DNA Analysis in a decade we see RFLPs be replaced by STRs
RFLP started DNA analysis
Scientific Working Group on DNA analysis methods –
ensure that DNA analysis techniques are up to
standards
STRs completely replaced RFLP
SNPs are around by we do not currently use them in forensic analysis
mtDNA came later to Canada than it did to the USA
Pioneering work of Sir Alec
Jeffrey’s and DNA Fingerprinting
Research on genes and muscles at Leicester University
Developed markers that would map the human genes, looking for regions that differ between
people
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) which is a VNTR (variable number tandem
repeat)
Began studying family groups – half of his bands came from his mother and half from his father
Used in an immigration study – made his work on identification public
oA boy born in England to two Ghanaian parents was living in Ghana with his father and he
applied to return to England to live with his mom, authorities turned him down because they

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Lecture #3 2
said it was his aunt, using RLP from the boy, mom, and other children from the father proved
that he was the son
oJournalists publicized this case in Leicester Mercury (a newspaper) in 1985
One STR is not as polymorphic as one RLP – but the technique is much less tedious
Collin Pitchfork Case – UK January 1988
Two girls, 15 year olds Lynda Mann and Dawn Ashworth, were found raped and murdered
respectively in 1983 and 1986 in an area just SW of Leicester encompassing 3 villages
Within a couple weeks police had a confession on Dawn’s case form a 17 year old kitchen porter
who was described by police as a thrumpence short of a pound – his father saw the immigration
case in the paper and knew that his son was too dumb to rape and kill a girl so he went to Jeffereys
who determined that he was not a match to the crime
The Blooding - Wanted to then narrow down suspects so all men between 17 and 34 (several
thousand men) had to give blood sample so they could screen for the correct blood type (ABO),
only allows them to eliminate people so it did not tell us the killer was Pitchfork
oThis is because ABO blood groups are very common so it only allows us to eliminate people
Colin Pitchfork was a baker with a criminal record for flashing who did not come forth – he
told his friends that his record would do him in as DNA is trickery - so he persuaded Ian Kelly (a
fellow baker) to get the test taken for him – he fixed up his passport with Ian’s picture and he
used it to take the test, he obviously cleared
On a Saturday in August Ian Kelly dropped his secret at a pub and a female manager from the
bakery overheard this – she reported the story to the police 6 wks later
Pitchfork confessed and was convicted of double murder January 22, 1988
Jeffrey’s and the Joseph Mengele Case
When Russian soldiers entered Auschwitz Poland in 1945 they glimpsed a high tech genocide:
hundreds of corpses of an estimated 1.5 million Jews killed – but the architects of the genocide had
disappeared
Dr. Josef Megele was unknown to the allies and the Americans set him free – they were unaware
that he was the ‘Angel of Death’ (a huge Nazi war criminal that exterminated thousands of Jews)
Mengele made his way to Argentina in 1948 under an assumed name
Another war criminal (Adolf Eichmann) later alerted the postwar hunters of the Third Reich’s
criminals and noted that Mengele was hiding out in Emu Brazil
German couple in 1985 led authorities to a grave in Brazil that contained the putative remains of
Mengele who had lived under the alias Wolfgang Gerhard – he apparently drowned at 67 years
Skeleton was fragmentary but had hip and skull and some teeth, femur, tibia, and humerus
oSo aging and sexing was possible due to the presence of the hip bone
Dr. Clyde Snow suggested that from anthropological analysis it was a match using bone and dental
records
oCaucasian (Nasal area), male (hip), incisive canal = gap in teeth, stature 173.5cm, dental
attrition 60-70
Dr. Richard Helmer used a technique called video-superposition’ and concluded a match with
known pictures of Mengele – determine what facial characteristics would be like from the skull
Many doubted the anthro results so in 1992 the bones from the skeleton were sent to
Jeffrey’s for DNA analysis
oMengele’s elderly mother and son agreed to provide blood samples and the results
produced a match using RFLP DNA analysis
R. vs Guy Paul Morin

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Lecture #3 3
4:30pm October 3, 1984 Christine Jessop (4’5”, 40lb, 9yrs old) was presumed missing from her
home in Queensville – 60km NE of TO, York Region
Police immediately suspected her neighbour Guy Paul Morin – 24 year old man, no criminal record,
but was considered a bit of an oddball as he liked big band music and not rock’n’roll
Her badly decomposed body was found December 31, 1984 in a field partly hidden by brush 50km
east of Queensville in the Durham region – her body was lying on her back, legs splayed, badly
decomposed with evidence of antemortem trauma (stab wounds), her underwear were found
beside her indicating that she had been raped where she was put to rest
Acid phosphatase colour test – used to test Christine’s underwear which had positive traces of
semen
oAcid phosphatase is an enzyme secreted by the prostate gland into seminal fluid
oIts concentration in seminal fluid is 400x greater than in any other fluid
oIts presence can be easily detected when it comes in contact with an acidic solution of
sodium alphaphthylphophate (APP) and fast blue dye
oSemen does not necessarily contain DNA – when a man has had a vasectomy they no
longer have sperm being projected into the semen so there are no cells located in the
semen
Some males also have oligosperma and aspermia
oP30 or Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) – PSA is unique to seminal plasma
When isolated and injected into a rabbit it will stimulated production of antibodies
Sera from the immunized rabbits can now be used to test suspected semen stains –
the antibody and test sample are separated and if they come together in the center
this indicates that there was in fact semen in the sample
This test does not necessarily mean there is sperm (DNA)
Police reasoned that Morin had opportunity (he arrived home shortly before Christine went missing)
and they thought suspicious that this weirdo did not take part in the massive neighbourhood search
oThey also received a prelim report on ONE HAIR found on Christine’s necklace that might
be similar to Guy Paul’s scalp hair
The charged Guy Paul with first degree murder on Aprill 22, 1985
The trial in early 1986 – held in London ON which was a neutral site
oTrial went on for 5 weeks before Mr. Justice Craig and a 12 person jury
oClay Ruby was Guy Paul’s Defense attorney and was loathed by crown attorneys
oHis defense was that Guy Paul did not commit the crime and if he did he could not be
charged because he was mentally ill (schizo diagnosis by clinical psychologist) – note that
Paul did not think himself crazy nor did anyone who knew him – he said he wasn’t and was
unequivocally innocent
oCrown’s evidence against Guy Paul included hair evidence (3 incomplete fractured hairs)
from Guy Paul’s Honda seem to match the hair on the necklace, fibers on Christine seem to
match those found on Guy Paul’s Honda and did not originate from her clothing, two prison
informants Robert May and Mr. X testified that Guy Paul had confessed to them about killing
Christine
oVertict: NOT GUILTY – ie he was aquitted
Post trial events
oCrown appealed and on June 5, 1987 three judges of the Ontario Court of Appeal handed
down a split decision two to one in favour of overturning the first trial and directing a second
trial
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