Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
Western (60,000)
ANTH (900)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3 – Legal Standards and Forensic DNA


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 2235A/B
Professor
Eldon Molto
Lecture
3

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
Lecture 3 Legal Standards and Forensic DNA
Legal Standards
o New technique applied to criminal investigation is an admissibility
hearing (voir dire) to determine the evidence should be heard by a
jury
Sets legal precedence
Oldest and most cited precedent relies on Frye vs. USA where
scientific evidence being presented was the theory underlying
the polygraph; ruling went against
o Corollary ruling to Frye consists of 3 parts:
Reliability must be established by experts
Experts must be properly qualified
Correct procedures must be used
Important Forensic Anthropologists
o Dr. Wilton Marion Krogman
“Guide to the Identification of Human Skeletal Material” in
1939
Worked on WWII and Korean War dead
Developed individuation methods such as stature estimations
o Dr. Clyde Snow
Contributed to formative, coalescent and modern periods
Founding member of the American Academy of Forensic
Sciences
Pioneered the role of forensic anthropologists in mass
disasters and human rights violations
Forensic DNA
o DNA helical structure first described by Watson and Crick in 1953
o Called the blueprint of life
o DNA alphabet has 4 letters: A, C, G, T which correspond with
nitrogenous bases (sugar and phosphate backbones are all the same)
o Initially thought all DNA made proteins but know only 1-2% of the 3.5
billion bases in the human genome are protein making genes
o Sequencing developments in the 1970s by Fred Sanger
o Junk DNA is now the basis of forensic DNA
o 1st forensic DNA technique called RFLP developed by Sir Alec Jefferys
in mid 1980s
o Pace of forensic analysis is staggering
Development of DNA Databanks
o 1998: the FBI launches a new database system called CODIS
Combined DNA Index System
Based on a uniform system of DNA testing that connects
forensic labs internationally
o 2000: the RCMP introduces its own Canadian DNA databank
Admissibility Hearings in the Modern Period
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version