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Lecture 5

Anthropology 2235A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Forensic Anthropology, Shoulder Joint, List Of Statistical Packages


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 2235A/B
Professor
Eldon Molto
Lecture
5

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Margaret'Ho'
Week'5:'Bones'&'Teeth'
1'
Lecture 5: Basis for Individuation methods in Forensic Science
Bones & Teeth
General Comments
Med students don’t have access to cadavers as much today
Odontologists are generally trained in dentistry & dental surgery
Antemortem to post-mortem comparisons (4 types):
1. Positive identification (identical records)
2. Presumptive identifications (some discrepancies that are explainable) !
tooth lost post-mortem
3. Negative identification/exclusion: one or more unexplainable discrepancies
exist
4. Insufficient evidence (due to bad preservation)
Forensic anthropologists are generally trained in biologicsl anthropology (anatomy,
finger print analysis)
o Extensive knowledge in:
" Field recovery techniques
" Human macroscopic & microscope skeletal and dental anatomy
" Knowledge of human physiology & pathology (trauma)
" Quantitative biology (statistics)
All fields stress continual upgrading & certification
All techniques have to undergo proficiency testing
Daubert & Mohan: weakest part of expertise for anthropologists & odontologists =
statistical analysis (see Dirkmatt Article pg 36-37)
Forensic Cases
Body farm (Sudbury) ! helps develop methods to determine how long it takes to
skeletonise, odours, etc
o Developing by Dr. Scott Fairgrieve @ Laurentian University
o First one was in Tennessee, different conditions from there to here
Establishment of Forensic Anthropology Centre at University of Tennessee by Dr.
Bill Bass ! modern collection of human skeletons in Forensic Data Bank (FDB)
Forensic Odontology
If there are ante mortem dental records ! can obtain a + ID
Familiar with bite mark analysis
o Major issue in proficiency testing, error rate of 64%
o Most difficult identificiation method
Bite marks also swabbed for potential DNA testing
Humans: only species that have a childhood
o Don’t get first molar (permanent) tooth until age 6

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Margaret'Ho'
Week'5:'Bones'&'Teeth'
2'
People have 2 Identities
BI: biological identity
o Age, sex, race
PI: personal identity
o Name, defining idiosyncratic characteristics
Osteobiography: describes these 2 aspects of individuation
Modern Samples
Statistical package Fordisc developed from modern samples analyzes
measurements from unknown skeletal remains
o Program uses established statistical methods to determine osteobiographies
of unidentified remains
The Manitou man
Input all the measurements (all done in blind):
o Males, Amerindian
Could see a shovel-shaped incisor ! found in Armenians but not Caucasians or
Blacks
The Human Skeleton in Forensic Science
Forensic anthropologists are trained in techniques of human biological ID (age, sex,
stature, race = the Big Four)
Populations vary in their sexual dimorphism ! cannot apply one standard of one
population to another
Measurements of skeleton = osteometry
Observe osteo/dento-scopic traits (look at variation in the bone) that have a genetic
meaning for race & sexual differentiation
Idiosyncratic aspects for uniqueness
Inventory: requires knowledge of all bony landmarks in human skeletons
o Infant & child skeletons = very delicate, many more bones that are badly
preserved
General Makeup of Bone (not thoroughly going to be tested on this)
Framework of hard (calcified) material
Specialized cells = osteoblasts & ostesoclasts
Covered by membrane
Highly vascular, blood vessels going in
Trabeculae in spongy bone = little circles
o Circular haversian systems aka osteons (will increase in number with age)
Haversian systems ~ older age, per unit of compact bone will increase in number
Lacunaue = little space a bone cell is housed in (in the holes)
After death, the bone will die but the DNA will remained
o DNA = [-] charged will adhere/bind to the positively charged apatite (bone)
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Margaret'Ho'
Week'5:'Bones'&'Teeth'
3'
Same basis with teeth:
o White part = enamel
o Underneath enamel = yellow layer called dentin = source of mtDNA
o Pulp has both forms of DNA
Odontoblasts have cells that have nuclei with nDNA
o With death: all tissues break down and everything will degrade
o Dentin = dendritic part of the ondontoblasts, mtDNA
Sexing using DNA
Amelogenin locus on X & Y chromosomes
o Amelogenin makes dentin (one peak in female = homozygous)
o Gene codes for protein found in tooth enamel in homologous segments
o 100% success rate in a study of 100 year old skeletons
Procedures & Perspectives in developing Ostesobiography
All have errors, cannot be relied upon for expert witness testimony
Modern samples in FDB & development of comp software = improved individuation
Daubert: focus = reliability & proficiency testing
New methods have to undergo rigors of peer review & reliability (blind testing)
Questions addressed by Forensic Anthropologist:
o Are they human
o Are they of forensic interest?
o Is there more than 1 individual
o When did death occur
o How old?
o What sex?
o How tall?
o Race?
o Any idiosyncratic data?
Procedures in analysis:
o Inventory (# individuals)
o Age estimate
o Morphology
Aging Skeletons
Age changes vary between & within pops
Sex differences = biggest intra-population variant (girls mature faster)
Use different methods for aging subadults & adults
All age estimates have a standard deviation which is larger than the older person
If possible: use as many methods possible to find the age, sex, stature, etc The
Big Four
o If they don’t agree, then use the method that is the most reliable
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