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Anthropology 1020E
Alexis Dolphin

P a g e | 1 Lecture 6 January 24/2013 Chapter 8 Archeology: Archeological Methods Early archeology: more about treasure hunting  Antiquarians  Description  Aesthetic value  Context of little importance  Indigenous peoples Thomas Jefferson: excavated mounds- (1743-1829)  Excavation: one of the first people to excavate an ancient site and do it systamitcally  Stratigraphy o Study of the sequential layering of deposits  Research question o Went into the research about mounds, about what happened, thought through excavation- minimize damage  mounds o Lots of layers: o At this time archeology started growing, lots of people began to and then were able to compare and ask question Processual Archeaeology Lewis Binford (1931-2011)  New archeology(1960s)  Untapped potential of archeological evidence  Archeological reasoning made explicit  Make generalisations about causes of social changes o And this being able to pull things together on the context of social change Postprocessual Archeology (1980s-present)  Rejects the search for universal laws  Rejects scientific methods and objectivity P a g e | 2 o For example: an ancient artwork: yu can have a scientific approach for the interpretation or can make a symbolic interpretation (more post-processual)  Culture drives change: o trying to apply universal laws wont work because every culture is different and unique  Archeology as unavoidably political o There maybe multiple truths- they all have different perspective o How you interpet, if you can excavate, etc... all depends on politics  Bruce trigger (1937-2006) o Famous Canadian archeology o Questioned processual archeology Archeology Now  Scientific method  Complicated relationship between fact and theory  Adaptation  Role of individual o Rather than a whole culture o Want to know how life was like as an individual living in that area  Includes role of symbols and ideology Multidisciplinary Diversity: more diverse people of different cultures etc... involved Public: Ethics: ethical concerns are taken more into consideration, more complicated Artifacts  Portable objects used, modified or made by people in the past Examples:  Stone tools/lithics  Trade beads  Ceramics P a g e | 3 Features: Non-portable evidence of human activity Examples:  Fire hearths  Post holes  Garbage pits Contexts The spatial and temporal associations between artifacts and/or features  Important to understand how they deal spatial: does one of the objects came from an earlier or later time period Gathering the data: Site survey  Process of discovering the location of archaeological sites Walkover survey  Teams of walkers  Parallel transects  Mark locations of all finds Remote Sensing:  Photographic and geophysical technique used to identitfy sites Examples:  Aerial photography  Soil resistivity: putting probes into the ground, and electric , try to pick up objects image  Ground-penetrating radar P a g e | 4 Sampling
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