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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Biological Change & Evolution .pdf

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Department
Anthropology
Course
Anthropology 1020E
Professor
Christopher Ellis
Semester
Winter

Description
Biological  Change  &  Evolu▯on   Historical  Background   ▯ • History  intertwined  by  the  idea  of  cultural  evolu▯on  as  both  rely  on  insights  and  principles   derived  from  geology     • Early  inves▯ga▯ons  were  not  always  clear  in  the  dis▯nc▯on  between  biological  change   (gene▯cs)  and  derived  changes  (cultural  changes  -­‐  Non  gene▯c)  change   • Some  seems  to  say  that  customs  inherited  through  gene▯cs  and  genes     ▯ Discovery  of  Humans  (New  and  Different):   • The  explorers...whole  con▯nent  with  indigenous  people  (people  already  living  there  before   they  came)     -­‐ >  Ques▯ons  of  where  indigenous  came  from?   -­‐ >  Are  they  actual  people?   -­‐ Cultural  and  Biblical  literature  did  NOT  provide  any  answers.   -­‐ Started  ques▯oning  these  types  of  literature…why  would  they  leave  such   people  out?   -­‐ This  led  to  other  paths  to  be  discovered   -­‐ Many  paths  taken,  faulty  and  dangerous,  many  were  dead  ends     -­‐ Biblical  literature  -­‐>  was  the  make  all  break  all  literature.     -­‐ Nobody  messed  with  it     -­‐ So  the  main  idea  goes  as  follows:     -­‐ There  was  no  change.     -­‐ Humans  are  very  recent  creatures     -­‐ Idea  of  Earth  =  very  young  (6000  years  old)   -­‐ Idea  of  humans  =  no  change  because  God  created  humans  in  his  own   image  and  is  the  most  perfect  thing  ever.     -­‐ Earth’s  actual  age  was  ‘calculated’  by  archbishop  Ussher  (AD  1650)     -­‐ Said  that  the  earth  was  4000  BC     -­‐ This  idea  was  widely  accepted  bc  they  were  the  most  logical  ideas  at   that  ▯me     ▯ • but  this  was  wrong:     ▯ • New  Studies:     -­‐ Geology  began  toe  ques▯on  such  es▯mates   -­‐ But  no  ▯me  was  able  to  be  counted     -­‐ Therefore  this  what  they  tried  doing:  trying  to  DATE  THE  EARTH   ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Provided  2  new  insights:     1. Earth  is  preserving  a  record  of  its  part  history  (in  which  one  can  ‘Breath  History’)     • Therefore  if  we  are  able  to  look  at  this  record  and  give  it  a  ▯me  depth     • Nicolas  Steno  =>  Steno’s  LawThe  Law  of  Superposi▯on   -­‐ This  says  that  the  younger  layers  of  the  Earth  are  on  the  top  while  the  deeper   layers  are  older.    ata,  the  deeper  in  history  you  go.  Therefore,  the  deeper   -­‐ Therefore  we  can  read  this  ‘▯me  capsule’   ▯ 2. Why  and  how  did  these  layers  came  to  be?     -­This  is  called Law  of  Uniformatsinsm   -­‐ Forces  that  led  o  crea▯on  of  Earth  is  the  same  as  it  once  was   -­‐ Slow  process  therefore  very  very  very  freaking  old     -­‐ Takes  ▯me  to  build  up  many  (like  thousands  of)  strata  -­‐-­‐-­‐>  layers  of  rock/earth   that  is  piled  up  in  layers     ▯ Biological  Processes     ▯ Cuvier   -­‐ Species  were  made  the  way  it  was  made   -­‐ Explained  the  ex▯nc▯on  of  species  by  the  great  flood  that  wiped  out  the  earth  (like  the   bible  said)       -­‐CATASTROPHISM  -­‐  global  disasters  thats  wipes  out  species  on  earth     ▯ -­‐ This  was  So  WRONG       -­‐ New  Theories  had  to  be  developed  for  this:     -­‐ This  new  theory  states  that  species  were  transmutable  -­‐  species  change  over  ▯me   -­‐ However  people  did  not    know  how  ….  The  mechanism  was  not  found  yet  (gene▯cs,   Nat.  selec▯on  would  come  later)   -­‐ Therefore  this  is  where  Charles  Darwin  came  to  the  rescue     ▯ Charles  Darwin     -­‐  Wrote  the  book:    On  The  Origin  of  Species     -­‐ The  Theory  of  Natural  Selec▯on     -­‐ Very  slow  process;  thus  fi▯ng  in  with  the  geological  ▯meline  -­‐  the  strata  of  the  earth   -­‐ But  Darwin  did  not    discuss  anything  about  humans  idea  or  anything  about  humans   -­‐ At  this  ▯me  there  was  the  accepted  idea  that  humans  were  just  as  they  were     -­‐ But  widespread  discovery  of  human  species  of  fossils     ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Darwinian  Evolu▯on     ▯ • by  the  end  late  1700,  it  was  lately  accepted  that  humans  species  change  over  ▯me   • But  they  had  no  idea  how  they  transmuted,  the  mechanism  was  not  yet  found     • Many  ideas  are  put  into  use...BUT..   ▯ Ide1. Change  in  biological  en▯▯es  are  the  interac▯ons  between  organisms  and  environment     •  SPECIES  WILL  ADAPT  TO  ENVIRONMENT     2. M•Inheritance  of  acquired  characteris▯cs/traits    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐>  the  use/disuse  theory   • Organisms  acquire  traits  THR
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