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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 Oct 2- Making a Living.docx

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Anthropology 1020E
Sherry Larkin

Lecture 6 MAKING A LIVING - Producing those necessary things needed to survive SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES Basic Divisions: Food Collectors Food Producers. Some of the most popular divisions: 1) Hunting and Gathering 2) Subsistence Agriculture (ppl who plant and harvest food without any major mechanical implementation) Horticulturalist Extensive Agriculture 3) Pastoralism (branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock) 4) Intensive Agriculture 5) Industrial Agriculture SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES 1. Hunters and Gatherers: Ju/hoansi - Kung San, Kalahari Desert 2. Horticulturalists: Trobriand Islanders Kawelka of Mt Hagen, PNG 3. Pastoralists: Nuer of Sudan JU/HOANSI Resources Settlement Patterns - Dry season = June – Sept; went to specific areas around watering holes - Wet season = begins in Oct Sharing "Only lions eat alone"- what one person has belongs to everyone Sharing vs Trading General characteristics of hunter-gatherer social and political organization: - a division of labour based mainly on gender and age - groups may come together for awhile and then disperse on a seasonal basis - flexibility in group size and composition - strong values of reciprocal sharing and of equality in personal possessions and social status - shared rights to resources Robbins & Larkin: Why did hunter-gatherer societies switch to sedentary agriculture? Advantages: Rights to resource (by lineage), Disadvantages: Cultural Consequences: Population Growth Theory: Growing pop’n made agriculture more sustainable Is this "progress"? Not really. As one group grows in pop’n and status, settling down (agriculture) is necessary TROBRIAND ISLANDERS Trobriand Islands = off the coast of Eastern New Guinea = Four main islands Kiriwina = the largest population of 12,000 Resources Settlement Patterns Yams- represent wealth and food (can be stored for up to 6 months therefore perfect exchange item to replace $$)
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