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Anthropology Lecture 3&4.docx

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Anthropology 1020E
Alexis Dolphin

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Anthropology Lecture 3 & 4 Sept 18 2013 What is Progress? Progress- “ the idea that human history is the story of a steady advanced from a life dependent on the whims of nature to a life of control and domination over natural forces” (Robbins, Larkin”) Human Evolution - Australopithecine Lived 2 million to 4 million years ago - Homo sapiens 100,000 years - Food production Began in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago Questions? Why do poor countries not modernized in the same way as other countries do? Age of Exploration Began in the 15 century with the Portuguese 1488: southern Atlantic coast of Africa and went around the Cape of Good Help. 1490s: established trade with india 1492: Columbus landed in the America Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 West == Spain East === Portugal Then along came the Dutch, English and French - Spanish: Mexico Peru. French and the British  North America  Caribbean  Africa  Asia  Fur Trade in North America Effects of Western Expansion Fur Trade: -Social -Economic -Disease Atlantic Slave Trade - Moved millions of people from African continent to America - Took away population of villages - Took away parts of families “Great trading triangle” - Leaving African on ships transformed for human cargo - Many died - Would reload on Caribbean, sometimes take sugar and trade this for timber and fish - Then back to Europe to trade - Back to Africa to trade for salves Classifying People Two kinds of typologies: 1) Those based on Evolution 2) Those based on political and social Structure Unilineal Cultural Evolution 1) Savages- lacked a form of family, religion, and technology. Hunter/ gatherers 2) Barbarians- not civilized 3) Civilization- “the goal” where everyone should be European *All stages are temporary  Henry Morgan: Ethnic Periods Criteria: Technology Ethnocentrism: someone else deifying you British Structural Typologies: Egalitarian Systems: - Band (hunters/gatherers) often a family, or and extended family. Rarely number over 50 - Tribe (Larger then bands, farm and heard animals for a living, occasionally have a leader) Centralized Political Systems: have a leader -Chiefdom (have more access to material goods, come from
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