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Lecture 5

Anthropology Lecture 5.docx

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Anthropology 1020E
Alexis Dolphin

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Anthropology: Lecture 5 September 23, 2013 Making a Living Subsistence Strategies Basic Divisions: Food Collectors: hunters and gatherers Food Producers: planters Some of the most popular divisions: 1) Hunting and Gathering; collect wild vegetables, hunt small animals, fish 2) Subsistence Agriculture; grow food for export Horticulturalist Extensive Agriculture; people use a plot of land until the nutrients runs out, then create a new plot, most have several plots (slash and burn) 3) Pastoralism; hurting animals 4) Intensive Agriculture; using same plot of land over and over (must add nutrients). Each plot of land is planted with one crop 5) Industrial Agriculture; Also in Ontario “agri-business”, a single crop solf and turned into something else. Ex tobacco Case Studies 1. Hunters and Gatherers: Ju/hoansi - Kung San, Kalahari Desert 2. Horticulturalists: Trobriand Islanders Kawelka of Mt Hagen, PNG 3. Pastoralists: Nuer of Sudan Ju/’hoansi: Live in the desert, divided into 5 different groups -population 50,000 -products of desert as resources nuts, berries, lemons -wetlands, grasslands -honey -hunt small animals and shoot large animals -huts made from branches and mud Problems: Lack of water -During dry season they gather around permanent water holes and stay there -Very mobile society -Spend 1/3 of there time visiting there camps -1/3 time hunting and gathering -Most common value is sharing (only lions eat alone) every family shares what they have -May trade with outside groups never among themselves, everything is everybody’s Resources Settlement Patterns - Dry season = June - Sept - Wet season = begins in Oct Sharing "Only lions eat alone" Sharing vs Trading General characteristics of hunter-gatherer social and political organization: - a division of labor based mainly on gender and age - Groups may come together for awhile and then disperse on a seasonal basis - Flexibility in group size and composition - Strong values of reciprocal sharing and of equality in personal possessions and social status - shared rights to resources Robbins & Larkin: Why did hunter-gatherer societies switch to sedentary agriculture? Advantages: support far more people of the territory Disadvantages: only can support 1 or 2 people, hard work, takes away nutrients of soil, face starvation Cultural Consequences: size and permanence of settlements that increase with agriculture, sense of owner ship as a group, potential accumulation of wealth (differentiations of wealth) Population Gro
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