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January 20th - Primate relatives.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
Anthropology 1020E
Professor
Alexis Dolphin
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 5: Primates - Who are our primate relatives? - What can they reveal about our humanity? What is a primate? Who are the non-human primates? Film: “Life in the Trees” Primates as Mammals 3 Subgroups: - Egg layers (monotremes) - Marsupials - Placentals Placental Mammals: - Body hair - Long gestation period o Pregnancy - Mammary glands - Different types of teeth - Constant body temperature - Increased brain size - Capacity for learning and behavioral flexibility Primate Characteristics: Limbs and Locomotion - Tendency toward erect posture o Always a few exceptions o Sitting up strait not necessarily bipedalism - Flexible limb structure o Adaptation for living in trees - Hands and feet with a high degree of prehensility o We’ve pretty much lost this in our feet - Opposable thumb - Nails instead of claws Types of Locomotion: Quadra-pedal: - All four limbs support the body - Bodies are usually parallel to the ground - Heads look forward - Different anatomy at base of skull Brachiation: - Body suspended beneath hands - Support alternative form one forelimb to the other o Gibbons are the best at this Clinging and Leaping Knuckle-walkers - Chimps Bipedalism Diet and Teeth: - Lack of dietary specialization o Omnivorous  Eats everything - Different types of teeth for different jobs Senses and the Brain: - Colour vision o Most - Depth Perception o Eyes at the front of skull - Decreased reliance on smell o Ex. Cats and dogs - Expansion and increased complexity of the brain o More complex with apes and even more in humans o Large relative to our body size Maturation, Learning and Behavior - Long Gestation - Fewer offspring and delayed maturation o Fewer offspring with more care required - Depend on flexible, learned behavior o Maturation has to happen when they come out of our bodies because they just wouldn’t fit out of pelvis - Strong mother-infant bond o Strong variation for how involved males are with babies within primates - Live in social groups - Active during the day Prosimians (Lemurs and Lorises) - Where: o Madagascar - Anatomy: o Tooth comb o Grooming claw  Keeps bugs out  Bonding and building social relationships o Larger olfactory bulb - Behaviour: o Female dominance o Scent-marking Anthropoid Traits - Monkeys, apes and humans o Larger body size (relative to prosimians)  Asia, not really in Europe, not in northAmerica (non- human), plenty in south America o Larger brain o Reduced reliance on sense of smell o Increased reliance on vision o Bony plate around eye socket o Increased parental care o More mutual grooming - Monkeys: o 85% of all primates o Two groups:  New world monkeys (NWM)
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