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Lecture 6

Anthropology 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Capillary, Homeostasis, Melanocyte


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1020E
Professor
Glenn Dolphin
Lecture
6

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Biological Anthropology – Hominins and Human Variation and Adaptation
February 3, 2014
LAB GRADE AVERAGES (OUT OF 33):
A= 27.6
B= 25.0
C= 28.8
D= 24.7
HUAMN BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION
Plasticity
oCapacity to change physiologically in response to environmental stress
Homeostasis
oA condition of balance in a biological system
Dynamic steady state
EXAMPLES: ADAPTATIONS TO HEAT
Sweating
oLose heat by evaporation cooling
oCan lose too much!
Vasodilation
oCapillaries at skin’s surface widen to allow increased blood flow
EXAMPLES: ADAPTATIONS TO COLD
Shivering
oGenerates body heat
oRequires energy
Vasoconstriction
oRestriction of capillaries/blood flow at skin’s surface
oMore efficient that heating up
oCan be too cold
Long-term: Inuit cycling vasodilation and vasoconstriction
EXAMPLES: ADAPTATION TO HIGH ALTITUDES
Hypoxia:
oOxygen starvation (>2400 m)
Short-term adaptation – more red blood cells
Long-term adaptation – larger lung capacity
PHENOTYPIC VARIATION
Relatively homogenous species
oThousands of genes, thousands ands of phenotypic outcomes
Great deal of interest in:
oHair
oEyes
oSkin
Certain phenotypes are more common in some populations
CLINAL VARIATION
Cline
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