Anthropology 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Syphilis, Tuberculosis, Soft Tissue

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DECEMBER 1 2015 LECTURE
HOW DO WE RECONSTRUCT THE LIVES OF PAST PEOPLES?
Archaic Homo. Sapiens
Mix of H. erectus and modern H. sapiens traits
oCombination of traits varies regionally
oFound in Africa, Asia and Europe
General changes compared with H. erectus include:
oEven larger brains
oSmaller molars
oDecrease in cranial and post cranial robusticity
800 000-28 000 years ago
Anatomy
Low Skulls
Sloping foreheads
Face and Teeth Larger than Humans
No chin
(Some) Robust Postcranial Skeleton
Neanderthals
225 000-28 000 years ago
Found in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Western Europe
1500 cc brain size
Shorter and stockier than modern Homo sapiens
Anatomy
Receding Forehead
No Chin
Occipital Bun
Large Nose and Sinuses
Large Arched Brow Ridges
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DECEMBER 1 2015 LECTURE
Retromolar Gap
Anatomy could have adapted to the cold as they went through several glacial periods
Culture
Lived in caves and used fire
Evidence of hunting and gathering
Ritual and symbolic thought?
oDeliberate burial (tools, bones, stone slabs)
oFlowers in burial
Art and music?
o“Flute”
oProto-figurines
Homo sapiens (aka “Us”)
Anatomically modern Homo sapiens (AMHS)
Basic Questions:
oWhen did AMHS first appear?
oWhen did AMHS disperse to other areas of the Old World?
oWhat did they do when they got there?
Anatomy
200 000 years ago to present
Found worldwide
1350 cc brain size
Round cranium
Vertical forehead
Flat face
Small teeth
Chin
Origin
Two opposing theories:
oReplacement model (“Out-of-Africa”)
oRegional continuity model (“Multiregional”)
Compromise theory:
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