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1 anthro intro.odt

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Western University
Anthropology 1025F/G
Terry Webb

Anthro intro january 7 th • reality has been determined for you by the culture you were born into ◦ behaviour, thought, speech • development of anthropological thought ◦ Herodotus the Greek ◦ Ibn Khadun ▪ Arab scholar 14 century ▪ no access to his material in the 19 century ▪ culture is a characteristic of humans ▪ everything in culture is interrelated ◦ Imperialism ▪ explorations, coming into contact with a people they have never seen before ▪ ethnocentrism ◦ Montaigne th ▪ 16 century, responsible for the enlightenment ▪ how to categorize people into “types” ◦ The Enlightenment th th ▪ 17 -18 century ▪ time of discover with Newton, Linnaeus etc. ▪ based on rationality ▪ questioning of biblical traditions after adapting rationality ◦ Jean Jaques Rousseau vs. Thomas Hobbes ▪ Hobbes existed and died before Rousseau ▪ social philosophers ▪ Hobbes – economists - the natural human being was brutish and needed government ▪ Rousseau – study Carib Indians – natural human being was good, civilization turns them ◦ Comte ▪ apply scientific method to study humans ◦ Edward Tyson ▪ anatomist ▪ wanted to dissect humans, dug up graves in order to do so ◦ Linnaeus th ▪ 18 century, set up classification system based on body structure ▪ did not infer evolutionary relationships ◦ Montesquieu ▪ 17 -18 century, environmentalism ▪ environment is important in the development of the human ▪ try to step outside ethnocentrism ▪ product of societies history, environment and current society ▪ savagery, barbarism, civilization (Louis Henry Morgan) ◦ Cuvier ▪ mineralized animal bones and teeth ▪ knew bones weren't from animals living then (bible said all living things were still alive) ▪ after each catastrophe was a new creation - catastrophism ◦ Political conservatism ▪ literal interpretations of the bible ▪ class conflict theory, when people are threatened, see a resurgence in religious belief ▪ reversion into ethnocentrism ▪ race - attribution of group mental traits and behavioural characteristics to biologically inherited properties ◦ Monogenesists vs Polygenesists ▪ count on racial issues ▪ monogensists – all humans originally came from one species (adam and eve) but degeneration happened ▪ polygenesists – more than one species, but single strain that produced us was superior/measured skulls to prove it, until Germ
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