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The Meaning of Progress and Development.docx

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Western University
Anthropology 1025F/G
Randa Farah

January 24The Meaning of Progress and DevelopmentA Way of Life Disappeared10000 years ago all human beings lived in smallscale nomadic groupsThere were between 30 and 100 people in each group living by hunting gathering and fishingThere was a high yield of food relative to the labour expendedHunters and GatherersHad an informal and flexible political organizationLived in kinship groups cooperated shared their foodDistinctions based only on sex and ageToday very few remaineg the KayapoOver time they began to plant crops and domesticate wild animalsThey became sedentary or lived in semipermanent buildingsLived in larger groups 2002000 people practiced swidden agricultureSlashandBurn httpenwikipediaorgwikiSlashandburnHigh yield relative to labourPolitical organization is more formalLeaders assumed more authority and powerBeginnings of occupational specializationClans and SettlementsSedentary villages emerged comprised of several bands living togetherClans consisting of several groups claimed descent from a common ancestorGroups were ranked according to importanceOver time settlements combined forming state societies with populations in the thousandsPopulation increase and scarcity of land led to new agricultural techniquesthe plow and irrigation agricultureLabour management became necessary to construct public works roads defense fortifications religious structures armiesSociety became more complex and leadership became hereditary PharaohsSettlements became flourishing urban centers citiesSpecialists with different tasks and skillspriests warriors potters etcTrade developed and with it a class of merchants MesopotamiaEgyptAlso Mesoamerica Mexico Guatemala Belize saw the cultivation of corn maize cassava and potatoesThe first civilizations in the world emerged near rivers with rich deposits of soil eg MesopotamiaTigrisEuphrates Ancient EgyptNile Ancient IndiaIndus
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