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Western University
Anthropology 1025F/G
Sherry Larkin

WHAT IS PROGRESS? ** Progress: "the idea that human history is the story of a steady advance from a life dependent on the whims of nature to a life of control and domination over natural forces" (Robbins & Larkin 2007:43). th st The death of a way of life – nomadic “hunters and gatherers” died out? In the 20 /21 centuries Human Evolution Australopithecine - Lived 2 million to 4 million years ago Homo sapiens sapiens - 100,000 years Food Production - Began in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago and in Meso-America a bit later, but in the same general timeframe. Wheat and barley in middle east; corn, potatoes in Meso-America. AGE OF EXPLORATION Began in the 15 century with the Portuguese 1488: southern Atlantic coast of Africa and went around the Cape of Good Hope. 1490s: established trade with India 1492: Columbus landed in the Americas. 1494: Treaty of Tordesillas West = Spain East: = Portugal Then along came the Dutch, English, and French Spanish: Mexico Peru. Dutch: Cape of Good Hope North America Caribbean Indonesia French & North America British: Caribbean Africa Asia Fur Trade in North America began with the dutch, but French and English soon joined in. THE EFFECTS OF WESTERN EXPANSION Fur Trade: Social – because of the influx social changes happened immediately Economic – indigenous people focused on hunting beaver Disease – none of the indigenous people had any kind of immunity to the diseases that the Europeans brought with them. The diseases wiped out entire villages. Killed children and elders mostly, with other members of family also being infected. Atlantic Slave Trade Slaves were part of the great trade triangle. Ships would leave England with manufacturing goods. Then they would land in Africa and trade these materials for slaves. Then they would pack as many of the slaves as they could fit into the ship and take them in deplorable conditions to the Caribbean. The slaves would be unloaded to work and then the goods such as rum and sugar etc. to take back and trade. This left Africa depopulated. It left the Americas with a population of people who did not want to be there. CLASSIFYING PEOPLE Two Kinds of Typologies: 1) Those based on Evolution – cultural evolution 2) Those based on Political and Social Structure Unilineal Cultural Evolution 1) Savages – everyone started out this way 2) Barbarians – once the savages had started agriculture they were barbarians 3) Civilization – once the barbarians had started to read and write Stages of civilization 1818 (?) Henry Morgan: Ethnic Periods Criteria: technology Europeans looked at the world with themselves as the epitome British Structural Typologies: Egalitarian Systems: - neither of these have a formal system, head individual who can speak to the others, no permanent position of career, etc. - Band smaller, hunters and gatherers (50 or fewer) - Tribe larger than a band; farm or herd animals. Social relations – may be some temporary leaders, but nothing permanent (i.e. king) Centralized Political Systems: - position remains constantly - Chiefdom – chiefs relatives are set apart from the rest of society. They are entitled to special privileges (ex. prestige) - State – territory is marked out, defended against outside enemies with an army, inside conflicts with police. Many positions of authority. Has a separate set of gov institutions to collect taxes, laws. There were states present in the ancient world, that broke up and fell to bands, and sometimes bands jumped to chiefdom. This order is not definite and evolutionary of each other. Then came World War II - Break up of colonial world **Important Point: Anthropologists are never looking at "living fossils" of an ancient way of life, untouched by history. We are always involved with people who are trying to reconstruct their lives in the aftermath of colonialism. Robbins & Larkin: Why are some societies more industrially advanced than others? Why don't poor countries modernize and develop in the same way as wealthier countries? Video: KAYAPO (Anthropologist Terence Turner) Two Groups: 1) Those who live on the Gorotire Reserve 2) Kopote, who live on the Xingu River WHAT IS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT? The term used to identify an increase in level of technology, and by some, standard of living of a population. Others view it as an ideology based on three key assumptions: 1. that economic growth and development is the solution to national as well as global problems; 2. that global economic integration will contribute to solving global ecological and social problems; and 3. that foreign assistance to underdeveloped countries will make things better. (Robbins 2006:59) Modernization Theory Model – first world and third world countries. Idea that problems in 3 world can be solved by help from the 1 world countries. Modern World – “rich” world – working for progress, maximize their possessions Traditional Society – inefficient. Reject new world technologies Market – trading goods and services (global market in rich world – we control) History rd Modernist Argument – transform 3 world countries to1srdworld in economics etc Multinational Corporations – way to progress the 3 world nations (trickle down effect) the poor people in the society will get some benefit from the corpo.’s. backward linkages (tourism provides jobs etc) Industry Foreign Aid Doctrine of Comparative Advantage – countries should produce what they're best suited for Solution: Underdeveloped countries need to become like modern ones Dependency Theory Development of Underdevelopment – argues that capitalism deliberately creates underdevelopment in a once prosperous area – success of nations depends on other nations “in need”. Looks at the whole world as a system, instead of autonomous societies. Metropolis takes things from the satellites instead of including them into the metropolis. Structural Approach Underdevelopment – a verb, action that is going on. Active process of impoverishment. Histo
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