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Psychology 1000 lecture - Sept 14th.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
Anthropology 1025F/G
Professor
Christopher Ellis
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology 1000 – Sept 14 th History of Psychology: The Philosophical Roots Early Greeks and other ancients  Humans and Gods were quite separate from other living things.  Humans and gods reasoned about the world.  Animals behaved instinctively – without reason. Aristotle  Naturalist: placed humans at the top of a Scale of Intelligence. Rene Descartes (1596-650)  If I’m thinking about my existence, therefore I exist. “I think, therefore I am” Reason VS Instinct A problem remained:  Some human behavior is instinctive (just like animals)  Other behavior is based on reason.  Descarte’s solution: A distinction between the mind and the body. The Mind-Body Problem Pineal Gland: The intersection of mind and body. (Only have one) Dualism lives on  After Descartes, the study of the Mind became a topic for Philosophy.  And the study of the body became the topic for Physiology  Psychology evolved from both philosophy and Physiology What is Psychology?  The science of behavior and the mind. - Science – based on observable facts. “Show me the evidence” - Behavoir – observable actions of a person or animal. - The mind ** thoughts, feelings, sensations ** perception, memories, dreams. ** motives and other subjective experiences. Monism  The mind and the body are one.  Mental events are physical events in the brain.  Events in the brain: love, happiness, learning, ect. Debate between: Nature VS. Nuture Empiricists Nativists  Behavior is shaped by experience  Behavior is largely inborn - Experience writes on the empty slate  Like so many things, the truth lies of the mind. (important) somewhere in between these two  Tabula rasa positions.  Deny the influence of genetic factors Six Perspectives. 1. Biological Perspective 2. Behavioural Perspective 3. Cognitive Perspective 4. Psychodynamic Perspective 5. Humanist Perspective 6. Sociocultural Perspective Question and Discussion: Why did the Chicken cross the road? 1. Biological Perspective: Natural selection, eggs on the other side. 2. Behavioural Perspective: Chicken was rewarded for crossing the road, learning from other chickens. 3. Cognitive Perspective: Thought about it, might have remembered what happened last time. 4. Psychodynamic Perspective: Chickens childhood experiences. 5. Humanist Perspective: Gave the chicken selfworth. 6. Sociocultural Perspective: Social outcast. Answer: Why did the chicken cross the road? 1. From the Biological Perspective  The neurons on her motor strip fired.  Focuses on the part of the brain associated with the motor activity.  Galvani – frog legs  Brain experiments – electrical current, lesions/damage (Lashley, Broca) Charles Darwin  Natural selection: “Survival of the fittest”  Individuals who are best suited for their environment pass their genes along the next generation.  Nothing special about humans  Humans can be studied scientifically 2. From the behavioral perspective  She has been reinforced in the past for crossing the road.  Focuses on how the environment has shaped the chicken’s behavior. Watson and Skinner  Observable behavior was important not mental events.  Behavior controlled by environment - Control environment then control behavior  Reward and Punishment - Behavior modification. - Bribery - Rewards motivate good behavior 3. From the cognitive perspective.  She wanted to cross the road  Focuses on a conscious cognitive motive or “
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