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Anthropology 1026F/G
Christopher Ellis

Chapter 6: Training • Development of specific skills • Employees in large businesses are more likely to receive training Why Training? • Might be legislatively mandated, to achieve other goals (employment equity) • Screening for promotions • Remedial – correct perceived performance deficits • Reward • Learning organization - invests heavily in the learning of its members The Effectiveness of Training and Development • Training effective when evaluated with learning criteria (tests) but less effective in changing behaviour in the workforce (transfer) • Most effective designs – when there is match between type of skill and the method of training o Training is most effective organizational intervention o Most effective when designed and administered according to formal means of training design Toward a Model of Training Instructional systems design (ISD) model of training • Model of the training process incorporates needs analysis, training design and delivery, training evaluation and notes the interdependencies among the three major components of the training process Needs Analysis • Initial stage that identifies employee and organizational deficiencies that can be addressed with training, and recognize potential obstacles to succeed • Determine nature of problem – gap between way things are and way things need to be – and how/who needs to be trained • Organizational Analysis o Examines entire organization, its resources, strategy, and environment in order to assess its support for training o Results of previous interventions (build on previous success) • Job/Task Analysis o Component of needs analysis process, jobs and job tasks in need of training are identified and studied o Identify jobs targeted for training, job description (required tasks rated on importance and frequency) then training is developed • Person Analysis o Component of training needs analysis process during which individual employees behaviour is studied to identify gaps in performance o Trainability – degree to which people learn and apply what they learned (function of trainees ability and motivation) – motivation often neglected o Training motivation – trainees intended effort towards training, max benefit – should be taken into consideration of needs analysis Training Design and Delivery • Following needs analysis, make informed decision about potential effectiveness of training • Training objectives – knowledge, skills and behavioural changes that trainees should acquire during training • Training objectives, existing or purchase a training program, appropriate content (subject matter experts) who will receive training, how many people at same time, (smaller group, similar jobs = max success) who will be trainer (knowledgeable, good communicator) where will it take place (on or off job) • Train the trainer – designed to offer subject matter experts skills in deliver and communication Training Evaluation • Component of the ISD training model, designed to assess the value added for individuals and organizations following the implementation of a training program • Extent which the program has added value • Kirkpatrick ask 4 questions o Did trainees have positive reactions? o Did they learn material? o Change in work behaviour? o Positive organizational results? • These levels of evaluation outcomes form a hierarchy o Succeeding levels provide increasingly important info regarding the value of the training program • Most cases its done by a simple survey (focus on reaction criteria) which is proven to be unrelated to learning or subsequent behaviour • Evaluators are interested in how well trainees recall info and the extent to which they are able to incorporate info to action – can watch employee on the job to monitor behaviour change (behaviour assessment – ear plugs) • Multiple choice tests, long written tests • Compare company performance before and after Learning Theory and Training Design • Ultimate goal is to apply knowledge and skills in training and transfer to workplace • Two major approaches to study of learning – behaviours, cognitive perspective Behaviorist Theory • Characterizes learning in terms of observable stimuli and responses without any reference to what occurs inside an individual • Behaviour is a product of past experience in an environment – experience gained during training should influence later job performance (transfer) • 4 basic learning principles to max transfer o Identical Elements – stimuli in training environment are identical to those in work environment o General Principles – transfer is improved when trainees are taught applicable skills, and general rules that underlie the training content o Stimulus Variability – multiple examples of a concept should be provided, it allows trainees to see the applicability of the training content in their job environment o Conditions of Practice – manner in which trainee is exposed to the content of the training program  Whole vs. part learning – addresses whether knowledge, skills and abilities covered in training should be introduced as whole or part learning. Whole – practice an entire duty. Part – practice pieces of larger task separately… high interdependent parts = whole preferred. Independent elements = part preferred.  Spaced vs. massed practice – spaced trials = rest period between practice sessions. Massed = practices task continually. Spaced generally preferred. Massed for where errors are critical and learning from errors is important  Over learning – task should be practiced until its automatic (invaluable in health and safety) Cognitive Learning Theories • Social learning theory – people observe others to learn, helps us learn various motor skills or styles of behaviour (people we watch called models) o Attention – learner must notice the behavioural models and find them interesting o Memory – learner must be able to remember the info obtained by observation to use at a later time o Motor Control – use info obtained from observation to guide their own actions o Motivation – learner must have some reason to perform the modeled actions • Trainer must capture attention of trainee, be perceived as credible and appealing, it has to be presented in a manner which trainees can remember and draw on this information. Training Methods • Traditional classroom instruction is most often used – managerial and leadership training most frequent topic for organizational training (face to face interaction) • Training methods range on a continuum from very passive to very active (trainee involvement) • Acquiring behavioural skills requires a different type of training, which allows participants to actually practice skills. • Fidelity of the simulation – degree which simulations are able to reflect real experience (high fidelity high transfer) Transfer Problem • Application of knowledge, skills and attitudes learned from training on the job and subsequent maintenance • Individuals not improving their behaviour on the job, organizational performance isn’t affected from training • Depends on training design, trainee characteristics, and work environment o Training design that mimics workspace, on the job training • Transfer climate – characteristics of the work environment also facilitate or inhibit transfer (the ones that do so) o Efforts to enhance training climate – targeting team leaders, immediate supervisors o Transfer is more likely when supervisors and managers are supportive of the newly acquired skills and knowledge Safety Training • Emphasize development of both declarative knowledge (knowledge of various emergency procedures) and procedural knowledge (proper tools/equipment) • Well designed safety interventions are strongly supportive of the effectiveness of safety training Interpersonal Skills Training • Leadership, communication, teamwork, listening • Soft skills (make better use of technical skills required for their work) • Rooted in theoretical model (no needs analysis) a model of communication or teamwork • Task of training is to teach individuals the principles of the model, and develop/practice the advocated skills Leadership Training • One of most widely used forms of training • Leadership development was an effective intervention • Stronger effect for developmental opposed to training activities Coaching • Coaching interventions differ if, coach is external to organization or part of same organization • External coach - relationship between a client who has managerial authority and a consultant with wide variety of behavioural techniques to help achieve a mutually identified goal o Advantages external  Does not require in-house resources, perceived as highly credible, less confidentiality risk o Disadvantage  Cost • Internal – one on one intervention provided by colleague who is trusted to deliver a program to improve professional growth • Coaching begins with a form of assessment, goal setting is the workhorse of the relationship, techniques such as relaxation, self talk, occur over a lengthy period of time (ongoing feedback and problem solving) • Coached groups have greater self efficacy and enhanced outcome expectancy • Improved managerial performance in 5 areas (people management, relationships with other managers, goal setting and prioritization, engagement, productivity, and dialogue and communication) effective way to develop managers skill Chapter 7: Groups and Teams in Organizations Groups and teams • TEAMS – togeather everyone achieves more Defining Teams • Team – two or more people working interdependently toward the achievement of a common goal o Interact and share common goal o Brought togeather to perform tasks relevant to the organization o Different roles and responsibilities o Rooted in an organization system provides context for the team • Groups – made up of individuals on interdependent tasks but are not necessarily requiring interdependent work… teams are more than a group, they share goals and a common vision and great interdependence Types of work groups and teams: Team Member interaction and task interdependence • Interdependence – the extent to which performance on team-based tasks are dependant on other members performance • Team member interaction – extent which members interact with each other while completing their job tasks Role definition and Interchangeability • Role definition – the extent to which members have highly defined (and sometimes regulated) roles within the group, such that they are differentiated from other specific roles within the group o Low role definition – all members perform same general task • Interchangeability – the extent to which members fulfill any of several roles on the team o All members can perform same movements o Totally interchangeable – must be able to do all tasks Categories of Teams • Production teams – manufacture tangible products on a cyclical basis • Service teams – members interact with and assist clients on a regular basis • Project teams – temporarily come togeather for a specific purpose and tasks • Management teams – members work togeather to provide leadership and support subordinate employees • Action and performance teams – members are interdependent specialists working on a time-constrained task • Advisory teams – members are experts and have been brought togeather for a specified period to advise or assist a specific task Work Crews • Crews – groups of two or more people who come togeather quickly to perform a specific task and do not undergo a specific developmental process – made of experts who are highly trained and follow specific, standardized performance guidelines Autonomous work teams • Teams in which the interdependent members are given a substantial amount of control over their work and who are assigned whole tasks • Self managing teams • Increased productivity and quality of work and decreased absenteeism and turnover • Self managing teams may not create a good environment because team members create increased constraint for themselves, which limits productivity Virtual Work groups • Groups involving two or more interdependent team members who are separated geographically and/or by time differences, and who typically use information and communication technology (ICT’s) to help the flow of their work and interactions with each other • Increasing presence of multicultural teams • Report less positive mood, less committed to their team • Key aspect is extent of trust among members How do teams develop? • Forming – first step of new groups, which involves bringing members togeather, introducing them, and socializing them into the team – assumes group has no prior history – (formation) • Storming – the second stage of group development, which involves working out the interpersonal and work demands of the group – ignores the broader organizational context, roles and interactions – (task compilation) • Norming – the third stage of group development, which involves the group developing its own norms for behaving in the group environment, and imposing its own rewards and sanctions to reinforce these behaviours – (developing dyadic relationships) • Performing – the fourth stage of group development, which involves the group finally getting down to productivity working on the task – (team compilation) Group Norms • Legitimate, socially shared standards that influence how group members interact and work togeather • Group establishes ground rules, roles, and common goals • Conflict decreases during this stage, group becomes more cooperative and cohesive • Impact may depend on characteristics of individual team members, or the type of norms established • Team with cooperative norms rates as more effective and efficient Challenges with groups • Groupthink – a psychological phenomenon in which there is a tendency for highly cohesive groups to press for consensus and conformity, such that the group members striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action – concerns are not expressed, leaving false impression of agreement – takes place in high functioning, high cohesive groups (everyone gets along) • Team conflict – tension created among team members resulting from perceived differences • Relationship conflict – interpersonal conflicts based on differing values, personalities, and personal preferences • Task conflict – conflicts based on job-related aspects, such as allocation of resources, differing procedures, and differing perceptions of the task and decision o Team conflict encourages members to review their perspectives and decisions more carefully, leading to more innovation and performance – if there was no conflict, may not recognize inefficiencies (too much conflict is damaging) o No benefits to performance or satisfaction in having increased task conflict, negative effects of conflict tend to be greater in teams doing ambiguous and complex tasks • Social loafing – individuals put forth less effort when working in a group than when alone • Perceived loafing – perception that one or more other group members are not contributing as much to team as they should be o Negatively related to group cohesion/team efficacy, related to setting easier goals and having less commitment to the goals Team performance and outcomes Definition of performance • Should encapsulate both internal outcomes (team member satisfaction) and external outcomes (organizational performance) Group outputs • Groups generate fewer ideas than collective works of individuals • Autonomous work groups is associated with increased productivity, decreased withdrawal, with improvement in financial outcomes of the organization Benefits for members • Teams satisfy some social needs for workers • Increased sense of belonging, and job satisfaction • These positives then help work in other ways (less absent/turnover) with improved mental wellbeing, lower stress Future Functioning and Productivity • Need to look at future productivity to know the value of teams, teams may not have the same immediate productivity as do individuals Team processes, composition, and characteristics • Second concept of what factors influence performance • Characteristics of the team – 4 factors o Team familiarity – extent to which team members have interacted and are known to each other  Effectiveness increases over time (increased familiarity)  Cohesion – how close knit the team is (member attraction, nature of activities, group pride)  Highly agreeable groups, extravert, and emotional stability = higher cohesion  Efficiency – takes input and output into account  Effectiveness – only output (interdependence of teams affects results)  Cohesion and performance were more strongly correlated when criteria focused on behaviours (vs outcomes) and efficiency (vs effectiveness) and where higher interaction and interdependency was present o Team efficacy – belief that the team has the ability to succeed  Perceived confidence associated with individual and group outcomes  High collective efficacy = high satisfaction, higher commitment, lower cynicism (all regardless of work load)  Important because it related to team performance, individual health of members, and buffers negative impact of stress o Team diversity  Increased diversity may make for lower cohesion but may increase performance and innovation – division among colleagues leads to poor integration and outcomes  Surface diversity – demographics  Deep diversity – work attitudes  Job related – education/occupational background  Non job related – age, gender, race • None of these 2 were related to cohesion or performance  What affects diversity • Type of task • Criteria • Timing and stage of group  Task interdependence and goal dependence not associated with increased innovative behaviour when group was homo  Task interdependence associated with increased innovative behaviour with hetero groups  Hetero was negatively associated with cooperative norms at time 1 but unrelated to cooperative norms at time 2 (decreased over time) o Team size  7 members ideal, some say 12 is ideal  Depends on task and environment, 3 to 8 members better than groups with 9 or more Improving team performance • 3 levels of intervention o Team design – team is aligned with the organizations goals and has resources to attain goals, and has knowledge, skills and abilities balanced o Timing and development – individual training focuses on developing individual skills and team training focuses on teamwork skills o Leadership – effects team performance through individual perceptions of effectiveness (can impact team processes) Leading and Managing Teams • Communicate a clear purpose (team and organization goals same) • Identify available resources (provide required resources) • Develop talents of members • Protect team from outside requests and criticisms • Deal with team conflict • Understand constraints, problems and resources (problem solve) • Plan and organize tasks and coordinate work activities • SIX MISTAKES o Using a team to complete work that would be better completed by individual o Labeling the group as a team but managing each person individually o Giving up all authority to team members when attempting to delegate work o Bypassing organizational structures so that teams will have more freedom o Creating specific goals without providing any organizational support o Assuming that the members already possess all skills required to work well as team • Good leader will… o Ensure task is suited to be competed by team, lead and manage the members as a team, retain authority while allowing autonomy, retain organizational structures, provide organizational support to help team attain goals, provide training for members Chapter 8: Attitudes, affect, behaviour Job Satisfaction • The extent to which people enjoy their job. All aspects such as supervisor, pay, coworkers • Locke – pleasurable or positive state resulting from appraisal of ones job or job experiences • Cognition – thoughts and beliefs • Affect – feelings • Behaviour – how you behave • Should you measure global work satisfaction of different facets (FACETS) • People can accurately report their own level of satisfaction Measures of Job satisfaction • Job Descriptive Index o Most widely used measure, measures 5 facets (satisfactions with work, pay, promotion, supervision, coworkers) o Yes or No to a phrase of each aspect o Most Canadians satisfied with their jobs (shift workers less, younger workers less, sales/service less, high stress less) • Job in General Scale o Global measure of job satisfaction in which a total score is created based on ratings of several general characteristics (pleasant, worse than most, enjoyable, waste of time) and then Yes or
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