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Mon. Oct. 3 Chpt. 4 Primate Behaviour.docx

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Western University
Anthropology 1026F/G
Teresa Topic

Monday, October-03-11 Anthropology Lecture Chpt. 4 – Primate Behaviour Last Week: Notes: o Primate order Read chpt. 5 for this Wed. o Primate traits – limbs, locomotion (tree swingers or knuckle-walkers), teeth, diet, brain & senses (nose-orientation or techni- colour stereoscopic vision), social patterns o Taxonomy its issues with Primates Today: o Recall Jane Goodall & fascination with primates (among all primatologists & general human characteristic) o Intrigue for humans in watching similarities & differences (between human mannerism & non- human primate mannerisms; human social groupings & non-human social groupings, etc.) o From observing other primates, we can guess how much we are shaped by:  Culture  Biology  Nature  Nurture  Animalistic genes  Civilized genes o How much can we as humans interact with wild animals? o How used to humans are the animals becoming? o Are they being fed? o How do these alter the behaviour & social patterns of primates? o Researchers go to great lengths to show submission (using submissive gestures) & disinterest in conflict to species on study o Could researchers be anthropomorphizing study group  i.e. assuming group of monkeys are patriarchal & hierarchical like human researchers Female Primatologists: Jane Goodall > chimp study Diane Fossey > killed by poachers Barbara Smuts > study of friendship in baboons - Male baboons may become close friends with females (such that female doesn’t sense sexual arousal) Monday, October-03-11 Birute Galdikas > orang-utan study o High # of women in studying primates o Are males looking for something different than women?  i.e. aggression, dominance, status/hierarchy  do they ignore cooperation, friendship, etc. Key Attributes of Primate Social Patterns: 1. Group size & composition – basic info on vast diversity of species - # of male/female/young/adult - how quickly does it change - do they live, hunt, eat, forage together or do they split up - large/small group > can include: o dispersed polygyny (one male & multi females) (common in orang-utans & small prosimians)  males may mate with any female in their territory (but not total control)  do males rape females  low-density groupings; little social interaction o monogamous territorial pairing (gibbons)  females & young more secure shelter & food source  less sexual dimorphism (male/female look about the same)  less work for males in finding mating partner  less guesswork in finding genetic offspring  males more involved iin child-rearing o female cluster, one male (gorilla)  alpha male tries to control access to ovulating females  adolescent males tolerated until pose a threat  males kicked out form bachelor troops  alpha male may kill off nursing young so the females will stop lactating & become sexually available again o multi-male multi-female: (baboons)  typically large groups  males have to learn to get along  requires minimized violent competitive nature  may have a hierarchy (and females look to mate with higher-racked males) o one-male (and females) units within multi-male (and females) groups (Hamadryas baboons)  one male controls his female mating partners  other males within group respect the given male’s control of female Monday, October-03-11  juvenile males may be kicked out once adulthood reached  may hang around to take advantage of another male’s female o polyandrous clusters: marmosets & tamrins)  1 femal
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