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Macroevolution Lecture.docx

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Anthropology 1026F/G
Teresa Topic

Oct. 17, 2011 Macroevolution - Variability & variation within species selected for survival - How it happens at the cell level (micro) - Macro = evolution above species level w/ focus on formation of species (speciation) - Species = pop. Of organisms capable of interbreeding & producing viable fertile offspring o Viable = functioning as individual organism o Fertile = able to produce offspring - Macroevolution key to understanding organisms within last 500 million years Factors affecting macro - Isolating mechanism o Separates breeding pop. o Prevents gene flow o Creates divergent subspecies o In time (if maintained) creates separate species - Genetic separation, genetic drift, social factors o Cuckoo bird calls o Darwin’s finches on differing islands Cladogenesis = recall clad Species B Species A Species A or C Eg. Split between monkeys & apes Anagenesis = sustained directional drift Species A Species B Evolutionary biologists differentiate between - Variational change o Gradual change over time - Punctuated equilibria o Long period of stability punctuated by periods of rapid change Oct. 17, 2011 Some types of genetic change have profound affect Homebox gene = responsible for large-scale effects of growth Heterochrony = change in timing of developmental ___________ Key Concepts: 1. ancestral traits - traits defining group of organisms because of chared ancestry - eg. Bilateral symmetry in vertebtrates (left & right side same in most organisms w/ spines 2
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