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Lecture 2

Anthropology Chapter 3 Week 2 Notes.docx

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Anthropology 1027A/B
Claire Gurski

Anthropology Chapter 3 October 12, 2011 Chapter 3 Week 2: Phonological Rules  Rules and Derivations o Rules  Phonemic Representation (example /taen/)  Rules  Phonemic Representation (example [tae(squiggle on top)n]) nasal, a case of assimilation o Notes:  The underlying or phonemic representation (UR) contains only unpredictable information(/taen/: [ae] is predictable before nasal consonants)  Features predictable from the context are introduced by rules /ae/  [ae]/ ___ nasal consonant  The output of rule application is the surface or phonetic representation (PR) o Derivation  A derivation is the conversion of an underlying representation into a phonetic representation  Example: liquid devoicing in English:  In words: liquids devoice after voiceless stops, at the beginning of a syllable  In IPA symbols: /l,r/  [voiceless l,r]/ $ [p,t,k] ____ o Rules and Allophony  Consider the distribution of [t] and [tf] in the following data from Language X  No minimal pairs, so we look for complementary distribution  [tf] occurs onl before [i]  [t] occurs before all other vowels and word-finally (i.e. elsewhere) 
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