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Anthropology 1027A/B
Claire Gurski

Professor Claire Gurski – Marin [email protected] SS C 3316 Wed 12-2 Matt Mckarney TA Kristy Nicholson TA Course aim: - intro to lingo theory an analysis - phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and language change - Familiarize yourself with current tools of lingo analysis, show understanding and apply to language data - main type of evaluation will be problem solving either trough hw assignments or in class tests WebCT will have skeleton notes and any other info needed Print out lecture notes and bring to class to fill in Textbook: language files 11 edh Evaluation - homework assignments (4) 30% - midterm exam 35% - final exam 35% Homework: - 4 assignments, print of web, week to do - 7.5% each - Submitted at beginning of class - no lates accepted - handwritten or typed Exams - midterm exam will be in class on a Wednesday - first half – phonetics phonology morphology - final exam xmas period - cumulative but weighting more on second half Email policy - copy ta’s - will be answer 24hrs during week reading: 1-1.5 by Wednesday What is linguistics? - Scientific study of language Language plays an important role in communication, conveying thoughts, emotions etc. differentiating social groups, defining national identity etc And can be studied from these perspectives The perspective we will take in this course is on language as a system regulate by rules – a grammar What do we know when we know a language? Linguistic competence – what you know Linguistic performance – how you use it Linguistic knowledge is not conscious knowledge We may not be aware of the rules of language just like we may not know the ruls that allow us to stand or catch a ball Linguistic Grammar: The mental system which allows us to form and interpret words, sounds, and sentences is grammar. - phonetics – sound articulation and perception - phonology – sound patterning - morphology – word formation - syntax – sentence formation - semantics – meaning of words *ngafp *= can not work, English language does not allow Language is creative - our ability to speak a language (= our implicit knowledge of the rules governing language) allows us to form and understand an infinite number of utterances (sound combos and sentences)  creativeness of language or productivity of language Five language universals: 1. all languages have grammar - sound system – phonetics and phonology - words and sentences – morphology and syntax - meaning – semantics - although no two languages are identical they all have rules 2. all grammars are equal - there is no such thing as a primitive language - no “good” or “bad” grammar – all tell speakers how to form and interpret language - linguistic analysis must study how language is actually used, not an idealized version of how it should be used 3. all grammars are alike in basic ways - all languages use a small set of contrastive sounds to distinguish words - all languages have more consonant sounds than vowel sounds - all languages have an [a] sound - pronouns refer back to a referent 4. grammars change over time - addition of new words - changes in sound systems - changes in word order - change does not mean deterioration - it is said that the only language that doesn’t change is a dead language 5. grammatical knowledge is subconscious - you cant figure out how language works by thinking about it - most use what is observable (pronunciation, interpretation of sentences, etc) to make inferences on the underlying mechanism and to build theories What Linguistics Don’t do: - speak many languages  language is the study of language in general, not the knowledge of specific languages  language is an abstract system regulated by rules; linguists are interested in the system per se - “a linguist knows how to speak properly”  prescriptive rules  linguistic rules are descriptive: linguists are interested in the language systems as it is, not in language “As it should be”  we are biologically endowed to create perfect language systems; every speakers language is “proper” Linguists want to figure out how languages work, not change them What linguists do: - linguistic analysis - goal: discover the rules governing the properties of language goal of this course: - introduce you to the methods of investigating language scientifically - introduce you to the general facts of the structure of human language Linguistic analysis - process used in al aspects of linguistics - linguists try to describe the patterns and create rules to account for them linguistic analysis involves the following steps: 1. formulation of generalizations 2. formulation of hypothesis 3. testing and revising the hypothesis 4. formulation of rules 5. explanation of the generalizations Generalizations - generalizations are based on linguistic data - generalizations: proposals about the nature of the laws or rules governing the properties of language - generalizations form the basis for the formulation of hypothesis Key terms: - phonetics - syntax - system - wh-word - grammatical - competence - phonology - semantics - rules - prescriptive rules - ungrammatical - linguistic analysis - morphology - language - grammar - descriptive rules - performance - productivity Septh 17 th Phonetics Introduction What is phonetics?  the study of the characteristics of human speech sounds to provide methods for their description, classification and transcription  a segment/phone is an individual sound that occurs in a language Three branches: 1. articulatory phonetics – the physiology of speech production, how speech is produced 2. acoustic phonetics – the physical characteristics of the sound wave produced by speaking 3. auditory phonetics – the perception of speech sounds as mediated by the ear, the auditory nerve and the brain The International Phonetic Alphabet:  like any technical field of study, a special vocabulary is a necessary tool  IPA is the common short form  Careful, we are now dealing sounds or phones not letters or spelling IPA:  set of conventions for representing speech sounds  one-to-one correspondence between symbol and sound (unlike spelling)  relation between symbol and speech sound is arbitrary, phonetic symbols must be memorized  a phonetic transcription should not be confused with spelling, although the two may use similar looking alphabetic symbols **IPA chart links on OWL Phonetic Transcription:  when words, phrases and sentences are written to reflect the sounds they contain, this type of writing is phonetic transcription  ex. “grate” [gret] great [gret]  “bow” [bow] “bow” [baw]  all IPA symbols go in square brackets  a single letter may represent more than one sound  a combination of letters may represent a single sound Many-to-one correspondence between sound and orthography (spelling) and one- to-many Phonetics and knowledge of language:  speakers ‘know’ that speech is a sequence of discrete units, although objectively the stream of speech is continuous  ex the word “bat” contains 3 distinct speech sounds  speakers know when occurrences of two sounds must be classified as the
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