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Hunter-Gatherers in the New World.docx

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Anthropology 2100
Peter Timmins

Nov, 19, 2012 Hunter-Gatherers in the New World Traits of Paleo-Indian Complexes: 1. Well made lanceolate or leaf shaped projectile points (fluted and non-fluted) 2. Subsistence economy focussed on the hunting of large game animals 3. Time span between 13,500 and 12,000 years ago - calibrated calendrical age The Clovis Culture – 13,500-12,900 YA: -Kill Sites include Blackwater Draw in New Mexico, and Lehner and Naco in southeast Arizona -Have extinct mammoth, horse, long-horned bison, and tapir and the Naco site has 1 mammoth and 8 Clovis points and Living Sites are found in Murray Springs southeast Arizona -The Colby site in Wyoming is a kill site where George Frison found 3 piles of mammoth bones and possible meat caches The Folsom Culture – 12,900-12,000 YA: -Have smaller fluted points than Clovis and the economy focussed on bison hunting -Drove bison into arroyos and over cliffs during communal hunts and later Paleo-Indian cultures are known by distinctive non-fluted lanceolate point and the types are Eden, Plainview, and Agate Basin Paleo-Indian Complexes in Southern Ontario – 12,900-12,000 YA: -Gainey, Parkhill and Crowfield Complexes were entered from the south as glacial ice retreated and the environment in transition from tundra to boreal forest Seasonal Movements of the Parkhill Complex – 12,700-12,500 YA: -Used fluted projectile points and their territories were up to 300 km in length -They made seasonal movements to intercept caribou migrations along Lake Algonquin shoreline and acquire chert and they occupied a spruce-woodland environment Generalized Pollen Chart Information: 1. Sedges, grasses, sage, spruce from 13,000 12,500 BP 2. Spruce zone from 12,500 - 10,500 BP 3. Pine zone from 10,500 - 8,000 BP 4. Mixed deciduous zone with maple, beech, elm and hemlock from around 8000 - 300 BP 5.Modern zone has increase in ragweed and grasses related to modern forest clearance from 300 BP – present The Holocene – 12,000 YA-Present: -Have warmer temperatures after 15,000 BP and melting ice sheets leading to a rise in sea levels -There were massive changes in vegetation and many species became extinct (mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, mastodon) and this was likely due to environmental change and not over-hunting The Archaic Period in North America: Plains Bison Hunters – 12,000 YA-Historic Times: -Olson-Chubbock Colorado has evidenc
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