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From Early Homo to Homo Erectus and Homo Ergaster.docx

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Anthropology 2100
Peter Timmins

Oct, 29, 2012 From Early Homo to Homo Erectus and Homo Ergaster Early Homo: -Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis (2.5 – 1.6 mya) had much variation and they had a larger brain (500-800 cc) -Their molars are reduced compared to Austs but the incisors are still large and they were a habitual biped with a well developed foot and relatively long arms (ex: OH-62) Outdated Scheme for Human Evolution: Archaeological Evidence for early Human Behaviour: Central Places: -Could be like base camps but could they also could be activity areas like Koobi Fora where stone was brought in and tools were made and used and bones were scavenged there and broken and food was probably brought in Hunting and Scavenging: -Savannah environment created opportunities for scavenging and studies of cut marks on bones demonstrate scavenging using stone tools but there is still no good evidence for hunting -Scavenging may have been an activity conducted during the dry season Tool Making: -Systematic removal of flakes from cores -Hammerstone -Core - “parent” stone or cobble -Hard hammer uses stone -Soft hammer used wood, bone or antler -Fine grained stone fractures conchoidally and in a predictable manner Social Organization: -Possible sexual division of labour and long-term pair bonds and there was bipedalism, tool use and exploitation of new food resources may have lead to more complex social interactions but there is no evidence of ritual, ceremonialism, or symbolism -Terra Amata, France 300,000 BP has possible structures that could have housed 10-20 people each and were occupied on a seasonal basis every spring and there were a wide range of plant and animal remains indicating a diverse subsistence economy but the stratigraphic integrity of the site has been questioned by Paola Villa -Little evidence of symbolic or ritual behaviour -Sima de los Huesos cave in Atapuerca, Spain had remains of 27 hominins placed in the cave with a handaxe as a possible offering from ca 300,000 ya and bones show evidence of carnivore gnawing (not buried) Earliest Stone Tools: -Gona and Hadar in Ethiopia are two sites with simple stone tools with uniform flaking dated ca. 2.5 mya -Lokalalei in Kenya has tools dated to 2.3 mya and refitting of flakes to cores indicates that knapping followed a consistent sequence of manufacture (up to 30 flakes removed from the core) and these are much more sophisticated than ape grade tools Oldowan Industry: -Found on several sites in Olduvai Gorge, East Africa dating to between 1.9-1.15 mya and tools were made through Oct, 29, 2012 hard hammer percussion to remove flakes from cobbles -Tool forms were flakes, core forms (pebble choppers), hammerstones, and manuports (flakes most important (95%) for cutting meat/skin) and toolmakers understood properties of stone and some tools were curated and carried from place to place Acheulian Industry: -Found in Africa and parts of Europe and Asia from 1.7 mya – 200,000 ya (only Bose in China has handaxes) -Increases in refinement with flakes removed from the entire surface of the core and there are well made bifaces (handaxes) and soft hammer percussion allowed the removal of thinner flakes -Handaxes were well-planned and made in a standardized way over a very long period -Increases in diversity included more tool types like handaxes, cleavers, picks, scrapers, and utilized flakes -Experiments by Nicholas Toth have demonstrated that the handaxe i
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