Class Notes (806,718)
Canada (492,422)
Anthropology (847)

Early States in Southeast Asia and the Shang Civilization.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Anthropology 2100
Peter Timmins

Feb, 04, 2013 Early States in Southeast Asia and the Shang Civilization Major River Systems: -Red River in Vietnam -Mekong River and Tonle Sap -Chao Phraya and Middle Thailand -Many sites are located along the Mun River in Thailand -All flooded their banks creating an ideal environment for wet rice agriculture (requires water 5-50 cm deep) Early Rice Farming in Southeast Asia – 2000-500 BC: -Had bronze working around 2000 BC and there was trade in copper ore and bronze figurines -Social ranking evident in cemeteries (ex: at Ban Na Di in northern Thailand) and this reflects wealth from rice land -There was ironworking by 500 BC and this stimulated craft production and trade Noen U-Loke Site Thailand – 400BC-300AD: -Investigated by Charles Higham and there was an occupation mound 5 metres tall surrounded by moats and the site had five distinct occupations and furnaces for iron forging -Burial 27 had two bronze torcs, bronze bangles, two socketed bronze spearheads, and pottery vessels with remains of complete fish, shell discs, and four tiger canines -Has an Iron Age burial cluster and individuals were buried on “rice beds” (burnt rice) and they had them agate pendants, and bronze jewellery including rings, bangles, earrings, and bronze bells around the ankles -There were some males with very high status and there was an infant with many graves goods that suggests hereditary status and an economy focused on rice cultivation and cattle herding Dong Son Culture – 1000 BC – 43 AD: -Located in the Red River valley of North Vietnam and it was lead by “Lac Lords” who controlled rice land and trade -A major Dong Son site is at Co Loa near Hanoi which has massive fortifications surrounded by moats (600 ha) -There were bronze drums found there with different scenes decorating them Boat Burials: -Dong Son was probably organized as a chiefdom and high status boat burials were carved out of tree trunks -The Dong Son people were conquered by Han Chinese in AD 43 Thailand and Cambodia – 1-800 AD: -They were involved in seagoing trade and they were controlled by Indian merchants but they developed larger and more efficient ships -Buddhism diffused from India to China in the first century BC and local chiefs gained wealth and prestige and they circumvented egalitarian norms because they adopted Buddhism and a concept of divine kingship Southeast Asian Mandalas: -Mandala refers to a kingdom with a fluid political structure lacking territorial limits and it was based on alliance formation -The Funan (AD 200-546) was on the Mekong River delta and they had major trade with Chinese -The port city of Oc Eo (450 ha) was on an extensive canal system that linked settlements and they had a major jewellery industry and Angkor Borei was linked to Oc Eo by canals -The Chenla culture (AD 611-802) was located along the Mekong River where there was a group of competing mandalas and rulers and Jayavarman I had centralized control over land and labour The Angkor State (Khmer Kingdom) – 802-1430 AD: -Located in central Cambodia and founded by Jayavarman II who established himself as a god-king (a reincarnation of the Hindu god Shiva) and he built massive temples at Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom which housed religious symbols and served as mausoleums for kings Angkor Wat: -Was built in the 12th century AD by King Surayvarman and it is the largest religious building in the world with a complex that measures 1.5 x 1.2 km Feb, 04, 2013 -It was meant to be a “re-creation of heaven on earth” and it served as a monument to the Hindu gods Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma Angkor Thom: -Was the capital city built by Jayavarman VII and it is surrounded by 13 km of stone wall and a moat -The Bayon funerary temple has 360 metres of stone bas-relief carvings and thousands of people worked for the various temples -Had social policy and they built inns and hospitals but they were in decline by 1218 AD and taken over in 1430 Early Chinese Civilization: Longshan and Liangzhu – 4000-3200 BC: -Had larger settlements surrounded by walls of “stamped” earth and they had permanent field agriculture based on millet and eventually rice and they also had craft specialization with pottery, copper, and jade -They used Oracle Bones which were used by shaman to divine the future (scapulimancy -The Liangzhu Culture is noted for high status burials accompanied
More Less

Related notes for Anthropology 2100

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.