Archaeology Lecture 1 – cont’d
• Late 19 century archaeologist
• Fund major expeditions primarily in turkey and Greece, where he investigated the
site of Hissarlik which he stlieved to be the site of Troy – he was correct.
• Assembled probably the 1 team in archaeology
• Negative about him: the damages he caused to the sites when first trying to
The refinement of excavation techniques:
• August pitt-rivers:
Implement a method of recording the sites (??) by using a grid.
Recorded the details of the sites
Constructed scaled models of his sites
• Flinders petrie:
Worked in Egypt
Worked out the chronology of civilization of ancient Egypt
19 centuryAmerican archaeology:
• Some ppl thought Moundbuilders were those mentioned in the Old Testament, or
ancient Egyptians who brought technology with them to build it.
• Gov’t trying to push native ppl further West to make more room for settlement
• Went out and did surveys and investigations of mounds, collecting artifacts,
comparing them with others in the area and demonstrated that there were
connections with the mound builders and some of the native groups in the area.
• Once work was published, this view of mound builders began to change as a
result of Cyrus Thomas.
• Took a while for this view of native ppl to change
Daniel Wilson and the Beginnings of CanadianArchaeology
• Eventually became the president of U of T
• One of the first to include data from the new and old world.
• He was one of the few to be against the racism
• Two founding fathers of anthropology who formulated these views: ET and LHM
• Both created a scheme called Unilinear Evolution
Stages included: savagery, barbarism, civilization
• Unilinear Evo is grossly incorrect. Don’t necessarily become complex over time
Don’t really go through these stages but this was believed at the time
• Led to racist remarks
Early 20 century archaeology
• Here, Unilinear Evo began to be challenged
• Franz Boaz had a major impact in archaeology at the time
Remembered for cultural relativism
“Wasn’t right to compare cultures from another and judge their standards
Seen as a founding father ofAmerican anthropolgogy
Early 20 century arch
• Gustof Kossina:
o German patriot
o Like Schliemann, he caused damage
o His contribution was a very negative one
Racism as well
o Viewed prehistory as cultures tha