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Motivation And Emotion.docx

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Anthropology 2201F/G
Christopher Ellis

Motivation And Emotion- Chapter 11 Motivation often triggers images of people who preserve to attain their dreams and stretch the boundaries of human achievement. Motivation= is a process that influences the direction persistence and vigor of goal oriented behavior. The word motivation derives from Latin term meaning to move, and psychologists who study motivation identify factors that move us toward or goals whether they be obtaining food, a mate, success or even peace and quite Instinct Theory And Evolutionary Psychology Instinct- is an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus. Instincts have a genetic basis, are found universally among all members of the species, do not depend on learning, and have survival value of the organism. Modern evolutionary psychologists propose tat many psychological motives have evolutionary underpinnings that are expressed through the actions of genes. From this perspective, the adaptive significance of behavior is a key to understanding motivation. Homeostasis And Drive Theory Your bodys biological system is delicately balanced to ensure survival Homeostasis- a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain Maintaining homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system Homeostatic regulations also can involve learned behaviors Clark Hull- DRIVE THEORY-of motivation, physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivates an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension. Reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivational behavior Incentive And Expectancy Theories Whereas drives are viewed as internal factors that push organisms into action, incentives- represent environmental stimuli that pulls an organism towards a goal Incentive theories focus attention on external stimuli that motivate behavior, though historically the concept of incentives and drives were often linked. Clark hull argued that all reinforcement involves some kind of biological drive reduction Incentive theories have had more in common with classical conditioning than cognition Expectancy X value theory= proposes that goal directed behavior is jointly determined by 2 factors: o The strength of the persons expectation that particular behavior will lead to a goal o The value the individual places on that goal- often called incentive value These two factors are multiplied producing the following equation: motivation= expectancy x incentive value Extrinsic motivation= performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment Intrinsic motivation- performing an activity for its own sake- because you find it enjoyable or stimulating Overjustification Hypothesis- giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may over justify that behavior and reduce intrinsic motivation. Psychodynamic And Humanistic Theories View motivation within a broader context of personality development and functioning, but take radically different approaches Freud believed that much of our behavior results from never- ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defenses used to keep them under control. Energy form these unconscious motives- especially form instinctive sexual and aggressive drives- is often disguised and expressed through socially acceptable behaviors. Thus hidden aggressive impulses may fuel ones career as a trial attorney, businessperson or athlete. Humanist Abraham Maslow- believed that psychologys other perspective ignored a key motive: our striving for personal growth. Maslow distinguished between DEFICINECY NEEDS, which are concerned with physical and social survival, and GROWTH NEEDS, which are uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential. He proposed the concept of NEED HIERARCHY- a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top. Once our basic psychological needs are satisfied, we focus on our needs for safety and security. After these needs are met, we turn our attention to needs at the next highest level and so on. Self- Actualization represents the need to fulfill our potential, and is the ultimate human motive. Edward Deci and Richard Ryan- Self Determination Theory- focus on 3 fundamental psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness. People are most fulfilled into heir lives when they are able to satisfy these fundamental needs. When these needs are not met there can be consequences for both psychological and physical well being Competence- motivation reflects a human need to master new challenges and perfect skills. This need motivates much exploratory and growth inducing human behavior The need for autonomy (or self- determination) is satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference Relatedness- refers to our desire to form meaningful bonds with others The Physiology Of Hunger Metabolism-the bodys rate of energy (or caloric) utilization, and about 2 thirds of the energy we normally use goes to support BASAL METABOLISM- the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells. There are short term signals that start meals by producing hunger and stop food intake by producing SATIETY (the state in which we no longer feel hungry as a result of eating) your body also monitors long term signals based on how much body fat you have. These signals adjust appetite and metabolism to compensate for times when you overeat or eat too little in the short run Hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs Second homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent you from running low on energy in the first place. In evolutionary tests, an organism that does not eat until its energy supply starts to become low would be at serious survival disadvantage Many researchers believe there is a SET POINT- an internal physiological standard- around which body weight (or more accurately, our fat mass) is regulated. If we overeat or eat too little homeostasis will bring us to equilibrium at where we should be Signals That Start And Terminate A Meal Hunger pangs do not depend on an empty stomach, or any stomach at all. Glucose- a simple sugar that is the bodys (and especially the brains) major source of immediately usable fuel After a meal some glucose is transfers into cells to provide energy, but a large portion is transferred to your liver and fat cells, where it is converted into the nutrients and stored for later use. Sensors in the hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations. When blood glucose levels decrees, the liver responds by converting stored nutrients back into glucose. This action produces a drop rise glucose pattern. This helps regulate hunger Stomach and intestinal digestion are satiety signals Nutritionally rich foods satisfy satiety more quickly The intestines respond to food by releasing several hormones called PEPTIDES- that help to terminate a meal CCK (Cholecystokinin) is released into your bloodstream by the small intestine as food arrives from the stomach. It travels to the brain and stimulates receptors in several regions that decrease eating Signals That Regulate General Appetite And Weight Fat cells are not passive storage sites for fat. Rather they actively regulate food intake and weight by selecting Leptin, a hormone that decreases appetite. As we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood stream and reaches the brain, where receptor sites on certain neurons detect it. These leptin signals influence neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure Leptin is a background signal. It does not make us feel full. Leptin may regulate appetite by increasing the potency of these other signals Ob gene- obesity gene Db gene- brain becomes insensitive to leptin Brain Mechanisms 2 regions in the hypothalamus. Areas near the side called the lateral hypothalamus (LH) seems to be a hunger on centre. Structures in the lower middle area called the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) seemed to be hunger off centre Paraventricualr Nucleus (PVN), a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite. The PVN appears to integrate several different short- terms, long- term signals that influence metabolic and digestive processes. Neuropeptide Y is a powerful appetite stimulant When leptin reaches the hypothalamus, it seems to inhibit the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into the PVN, and therefore appetite is reduced. Psychological Aspects Of Hunger From a behavioral perspective, eating is positively reinforced by the good taste
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