Lecture 2 Part 3 – Pre Clovis America

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Published on 13 Jul 2012
School
Western University
Department
Anthropology
Course
Anthropology 2231F/G
Lecture 2 Part 3 Pre Clovis America
Monte Verde, Chile
o Best candidate for a Pre-Clovis Site, generally accepted
o Excavated and reported by Dr. Tom Dillehax
o Stratified site
o Wood is preserved because the site was buried and sealed in peat
o 12,000-14,800 BP
Unsure of precise age
Date back to the Pleistocene
Found with extinct forms of elephants
o Undoubted stone tools, mostly bifacial points (not fluted)
Bullet-like: long and narrow
Some mounted in wooden handle
o Basketry
o Structures
o Similar tools found in Venezuela and other areas further north
Paleoindians
Characteristics of Paleoindian tools
o 1. Made distinctive weapon tips, don’t have notched to attach them to
a weapon shaft, lance-shaped Lanceolate points
o 2. Use the finest grades of raw materials to make tools
o 3. Fine workmanship and skill that it take to make these tools
o 4. Shaped flaked stone tools, resharpened them instead of throwing
them out
o 5. Smaller, more portable tools
o 6. Always flaked them into shape
o 7. Few, if any, plant processing tools
More nomadic, big game hunters
o Many variants, very different across the landscape
Early Paleoindians
o Date earliest 10,400 10,200 BP
o E.g. Clovis & Folsom
o Clovis
Earliest
Found throughout the areas that were not glaciated (“Classic
Clovis”) – Great Plains, west of Mississippi River
Larger, coarser flakes, but still extremely well-made
Blades, used for different purposes (cutting, scraping, hide
working tools, etc.)
Burins very rare (engraving, scraping, etc.)
Used cherts, flints, agates, etc. wanted tools to look good and
work well materials found long distances away (within a
couple hundred kilometers)
Some bone, antler and ivory artifacts spear-like and some
harpoons
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Document Summary

Found with extinct forms of elephants: undoubted stone tools, mostly bifacial points (not fluted) Some mounted in wooden handle: basketry, structures, similar tools found in venezuela and other areas further north. Made distinctive weapon tips, don"t have notched to attach them to a weapon shaft, lance-shaped lanceolate points: 2. Use the finest grades of raw materials to make tools: 3. Fine workmanship and skill that it take to make these tools: 4. Shaped flaked stone tools, resharpened them instead of throwing them out: 5. More nomadic, big game hunters: many variants, very different across the landscape. Early paleoindians: date earliest 10,400 10,200 bp, e. g. Found throughout the areas that were not glaciated ( classic. Clovis ) great plains, west of mississippi river. Larger, coarser flakes, but still extremely well-made. Blades, used for different purposes (cutting, scraping, hide working tools, etc. ) Burins very rare (engraving, scraping, etc. )

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