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Lecture 3

Anthropology 2231F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Mastodon

Course Code
ANTH 2231F/G
Christopher Ellis

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Lecture 3 Part 1 Clovis
o Hunted extinct species of mammoths, mastodons, horse, camelids,
tapir and bear
o Also hunted or trapped smaller animals like rabbits
o Probably gathered plant foods
Clovis Sites
o Hard to find because they are very small (largest found is 200 m2)
o Only find the stone tools at the camps
o Large site found in Gault, Texas
Still being excavated, unsure how large it
Early signs of Clovis art rocks with engravings
o Caches stone tools, etc., blade caches, found in areas in areas where
there is little stone raw material, insurance backup in case you need
them and so you don’t need to carry them around
At least 8-9 caches may have single blade or scraper but are
dominated by complex tools
Often coloured with red ochre iron-rich pigment that was
spread on them, ceremonial colour
o Anzick Site
Found accidently
Broken bone ivory points, red ochre artifacts and the burial of
a small child
10,800 +/- 100 BP (date from human bones)
Earliest documented human burial in North America
o Ritchie-Roberts Site (East Wenatchee, Washington)
Found more of the very large stone points
Ceremonial purposes?
Classic Clovis vs. Clovis
o Believed that there was more than one migration, accounts for genetic
variability of modern First Nations people
o Consistent with other forms of artifacts found
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