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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 Part 1 – Archaic North America

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Anthropology 2231F/G
Christopher Ellis

Lecture 4 Part 1 – Archaic North America  Archaic – had to redefine Ritchie’s definition of archaic, not just pre-pottery or pre-agricultural, had to distinguish from Paleoindians and Woodland o *There are always some exceptions*  Characteristics of artifacts found that define: o Paleoindian  Lanceolate  Used finest grains of chert and flint  Art form  Often find exotic stones (300-400km away)  Fairly small, portable tools  Flaked stone tools, reshaped/resharpened – “curated”  Few plant processing foods and fishing tools o Archaic  Notched or steamed points (to attach to a shaft)  Used a much wider range of materials for tools  Coarser grained stones  Less of an art form  Used local materials, larger  Less portable tools (axes, adzes, etc.)  Groundstone tools/working edges  More disposable/expedient tools  More plant and fishing tools (mortars, net-sinkers, etc.)  Site characteristics that define: o Paleoindian  Rare  Small campsites  Small amounts of debris left behind (few stone flakes, etc.)  Very few burials and no cemeteries o Archaic  Increase over time  Sites increasing, much larger  Large amounts of debris (areas set aside at camps)  Lots of burials and true cemeteries (areas set aside to inter the deceased)  There are excepti
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