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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 Part 2 – Middle Archaic

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Anthropology 2231F/G
Christopher Ellis

Lecture 6 Part 2 – Middle Archaic Middle Archaic (8,000 – 6,000 BP)  Disappearance of similarities with Paleoindians  Artifact Differences: o Use of more local materials/stones, started using wider range of stones including coarse grained rocks o Throw-away stone technology – no reuse of tools, use and throw away o New tool forms added: e.g. net sinkers o More ground and polished stone tools (axes, adzes, bannerstones, etc.) o New kinds of ground stone tools, also pendants, beads  Were eventually traded over large areas  Site Differences o Large garbage dumps/middens  Especially river valleys, etc.  Intensive use of fresh water mussels/shellfish, taken in large quantities  E.g. Eva, Tennessee, begins about 7200 BP, shell midden about 3m deep, evidence that they are starting to come back to same locations – “entrenched mobility” o Appearance of more permanent, substantial structures  E.g. Koster, Illinois  7500-6500 area of Koster, find several well-built houses (rectangular, with substantial posts – 45cm across) o More Burials and True Cemeteries  Black Earth, Illinois  Dates to end of Middle Archaic (6,500 – 6,000 BP)  154 burials, could be as many as 500 burials  No elaborate, mainly single individuals in shallow pits  Differences in how pits were dug for infants, younger adults and older adults o Infants and younger adults buried extended o Middle to older adults were buried in fetal position  Younger people got more grave goods, not as common for older people  Not many grave goods to begin with  Adults: goods are utilitarian objects, tools form everyday life o Differences between males and females o Males: resource procurement tools (points, axes, etc.) o Females: processing tools (hide scrapers, awls,
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