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Lecture 1 Part 2 –Ancient North America

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Anthropology 2231F/G
Christopher Ellis

Lecture 1 Part 2 –Ancient North America  What has been found? o Earliest sites found to be 11,500 B.P. – radiocarbon years, about 13,500 years in our calendar years (called calibrated age) o History  Early ideas based on biblical records – lost Venetians or tribes of Israel  1590 AD – Jose de Acosta  Believed they were related to East Asians  Crossed an ancient land bridge linking northeast Asia to North America (modern Alaska)  Now know there was a land bridge  Modern Science  Genetics – can now tell they are related to northeast Asians o Blood serums – certain variations that occur in northeast Asia and the Americas  Diego blood group allele  Blood transferrin (TF D-Chor D-Chinese) o mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA)  Get it only from mother  Only source of variation is mutations  Haplogroups – only 4-5 found in Native American groups, similar only to northeast Asians  X-Haplogroups o Y-Chromosome – only in males, passed from father o Rate of Mutation  Split of Asian and North Americans sometime between 13,000-20,000 years ago  Dentition – great indicator or genetic relationships o Pattern of teeth called Sinodonty (high frequency of certain dental traits), most common in northeast Asia (e.g. China)  Distinct shoveling of the incisors  First
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