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Lecture 3

Anthropology 2231F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Folsom, New Mexico, Clovis Culture, Knapping

Course Code
ANTH 2231F/G
Christopher Ellis

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Lecture 3 Part 2 Folsom
Named after first site found in Folsom, New Mexico
Has distinctive fluted points
o Smaller, fluted, edges retouched to be smoother
o Apex of flintknapping
Several C14 dates on Folsom, 11,000 just prior to 10,000 BP
Descendants of Clovis peoples, predated by Clovis
Only found in the western and central areas on North America (high plains,
western Mississippi Valley, and southwest of USA)
Begin to lose Clovis tools
o Few, if any blades, some burins, no ivory because mammoths extinct
More organic tools (needles, etc.)
Sites: bias towards kill sites because they are easier to find (same as Clovis)
o Hunted long-horned bison, descendants of extinct forms hunted by
Clovis people
o Mass-hunting, e.g. taking 20 animals at once
o Sites for mass hunting only used once, maximum taken was 29
animals, usually took 10-20 at once
Cooper, Oklahoma found 3 layers of at least 20 kills, found a
painted skull of a bison
o Hunting took place in same season late fall or winter, may be due to
storage technology (freeze in winter)
o Rather than transporting meat, lived near where they made the kill
Relatively small sites
o Starting to go for more of the choice cuts (gourmet strategy) instead
of thoroughly using it like they used to)
No burials found anywhere
o Unsure how they buried their dead, scaffolds?
o First one found: Lindenmeier Site
Excavated by the Smithsonian in the 1920s
Covers at least 1000 square meters, quite large
Found on flat, table-like land, overlooks 2 small streams
o People came back to this site, 4 layers which suggests at least 4
occupations of the site
o Size suggests it may be an aggregation site where groups of
families got together in certain seasons exchange items, find
husbands/wives, exchange stories, where there is good amount of
game, etc.
o Evidence of bison kills, more people need more resources
o 2 concentrations of materials, chert from 200km north and south
found, suggests trade
o Around 50 people gathered at this site
o Hunted deer, rabbit bones found
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