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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 – Hopewell Societies

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Anthropology 2231F/G
Christopher Ellis

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Lecture 11 – Hopewell Societies Sodalities  Voluntary organizations o Medicine societies, etc. o Achieved, not inherited Non-Egalitarian, Ranked Descent Groups o Not all are just achieved o Burial practices: some have more space, objects, etc. which suggests that they held leadership and powerful positions in society – had to be born into it o Have to be born in the right clan in order to inherit these positions o Ranked Society o Transformation of society o Based on birth, not achievement o Inherited/ascribed status o Found children buried within the groups, suggests inherited status o Not marked status differences o Still not buried with mass amounts of grave goods – higher ranked people have a few things, lower ranked have one or none  Most grave offerings are offered to the group, not individuals o Not removed from other social classes in burial, class differences were not extreme o Called a “Simple Chiefdoms” or “Transegalitarian” society o Definition: society consists of a single, local tier of officials with close, immediate ties to their communities  Organized along the same lines of the Big Men/Great Me societies of the South Pacific First Consistent Evidence for use of Maize o 200 BC – 0 AD o First kind was called North American “Pop” o 12-14 rows of kernels o From the south western United States, originated in Mexico o Doesn’t appear to be a major part of the diet o Evidence from carbon isotopes in human remains o Supplement to the other resources they were growing o Started to add new seed plants to their diet, especially knotweed o Do not have the production potential as maize o Indication of increasing social complexity Non-Egalitarian o Group managed to
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