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Lecture 15

Anthropology 2231F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Grave Goods, Germination, Openair


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 2231F/G
Professor
Christopher Ellis
Lecture
15

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Lecture 15 Part 1 Great Basin/Southwest Desert Archaic
Canyon Heads
o Often find springs there
o Where most sites are found
o Washes after lots of rain everything get washed out
Southwest Late Archaic & Early Agriculturalist
Introduction of maize
o Came from Mexico, spread into the southwest
o Developed new varieties for higher yields, withstand hotter climate,
etc.
o Once it was introduced, used it heavily, used less natural resources,
transformed their lives, much less mobile
Earliest use: 3,200 BP
By 2,900 there was more sedentary life, based on growing of
maize
Groups that used maize heavily:
o San Pedro
Southern Arizona, discovered in the 1940s
Originally thought it was Archaic because they weren’t using
agriculture, by 1980s they figured out they were using maize
Early, small agricultural villages, seem to be occupied year
round
Made up of small number of shallow pit-houses with a hearth
and small storage pit for maize inside
Also have outdoor storage pits, bell-shaped, clay-lined to
prevent germination
Burials, no cemeteries or grave goods
Artifacts indicate less mobile way of life: stone vessels (bowls,
trays, etc.)
Wide range of wild plant foods
o Basketmaker II
Southern Utah, Colorado, northern New Mexico and Utah
There is no Basketmaker I, same as Archaic
3,000 1,500 BP
Rockshelters and open-air sites, tend to be smaller or as
intensively occupied more mobile that San Pedro
Developed pit-houses: central hearth
Slab-lined Cists: small storage pits lined with stone
slabs, flowerpot shaped
Villages becoming more permanent and larger by 0 AD
Changes in architecture suggested that new strains of
maize were developed that were more productive
Sites occur in certain locations, often in canyon heads, springs,
etc.
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