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Lecture 24 – Late Prehistoric Period

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Anthropology 2231F/G
Christopher Ellis

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Lecture 24 – Late Prehistoric Period  Introduction of bow and arrow, replaced spear thrower by 500 AD o Large points for spears replaced by smaller points for arrows  Do get pottery in some areas, later adoption (1100 AD) o Very crude pottery, plain, undecorated o Flowerpot shaped o Very thick with bulging sides, lacks temper o Pueblo pottery appears on some sites, traded in for what was in the pottery (usually traded corn for meat products)  Mauls – large sledgehammer, used to pound stakes into the ground to make the corrals  Bone fleshers – bison long bone with teeth carved into an end, used to deflesh hides  Many sites date prior to the arrival of Europeans, but some European goods were found o E.g. knives, etc. o Sometimes referred to as Protohistoric (have European goods but no European contact), indicative of trade with the east  Bison very important to lifestyle, none practiced agriculture o Hunter-gatherers up to European contact o E.g. Crow, Blackfoot peoples o Continued to use older techniques: corrals, arroyos, bison jumps o Use of bison jumps intensified, highest number of kills found and many new jumps developed  Still hunted in the fall  Some jumps up to 20m high o E.g. Glen Rock Buffalo Jump, Wyoming  Cliff about 12m high  Bottom was a talus slope – huge blocks of rocks from erosion  Must have been lethal, very few points found  Features of Buffalo Jumps o Drive lanes, but not as extensive (only about 3km long)  Some have multiple drive lanes o 200 or more bison taken at a time, evidence at each site o Used for multiple jumps  E.g. Vore Site, Wyoming  Not a jump site, they used a large sinkhole, made of gypsum which was eroded away which left the large hole  Used many times in this period, at least 22 separate levels with remains of about 25,000 bison o Thickest layers of bone around 1,000 AD  Was a pond at
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