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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 – DNA in Forensic Science- Cytogenetics

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Anthropology 2235A/B
Eldon Molto

Lecture 12 – DNA in Forensic Science: Cytogenetics  Cytogenetics o Cyto = cell o Cytogenetics refers to the study of genetic mechanisms that operate within the cell o In a human cell there are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus o In the cytoplasm another hereditary structure exists called the mitochondrion o Both chromosomes and the mitochondria are made of DNA  DNA in the nucleus is called nuclear DNA o Because all the mtDNA is the same often called the 47 th chromosome  Human Nuclear Karotype o Karotype: number and arrangement of chromosomes o When a new individual is formed by an egg being fertilized by a sperm, the new individual (zygote) receives 23 chromosomes from each parent o Females have two X chromosomes (receive an X from each parent) and a male has an X and a Y o The new individual has 46 chromosomes and eventually has to transmit his or her DNA to the next generation, the 46 is reduced to 23 by a cell division process called meiosis o The y- chromosome is smaller and has fewer genes (called exons)  Involved in determining maleness  Medel’s Laws o 1865: Austrian Cleric Gregor Mendel publishes the 2 key laws of genetics o Law 1: Segregation  States that a simple genetic trait is determined by a pair of separate factors (now called alleles)  One inherited from each parents intact from generation to generation factors do not b
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