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Lecture 19

Lecture 19 – The Eukaryotic Cell and Mitochondria

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Anthropology 2235A/B
Eldon Molto

Lecture 19 – The Eukaryotic Cell and Mitochondria  In cells, DNA is found in both the nucleus and the mitochondria  Mitochondria are responsible for energy production and the most of its genes are used for this function o There are hundreds of thousands of mitochondria per cell, thus a high copy number  The Mitochondrion o Has constituent parts o There are at least 2 and possibly many more genomes in each mitochondrion o Many genomes plus many mitochondria per cell = high copy number per cell o High copy number is a major reason for the use of mitochondrial DNA is special cases and in ancient DNA research  Mitochondrial Genome o CRS focused on the light (rich in pyrimidines - cytosine and thymine) strand of the mtDNA genome o Genome is composed of 16569 bases which is approximately .1% of all human DNA o Genome contains the information for the synthesis of 13 proteins, 22 transfer RNA
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