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Biochemistry 2280A
Eric Ball

Brandl – Lecture 10 Notes Three different types of genetic changes are possible: 1. Gene replacement 2. Gene knockout – totally remove a gene 3. Gene addition – add a gene that is not commonly found in that organism How do you create a GMO?  Integrate altered DNA into the organisms genome through the process of homologous recombination  See Text – cell lines  Yeast does this very well Gene on chromosome (3 types of things can go on):  Gene replacement o Allows examination of the function of an altered gene, or creating of a gene with altered features o Biotechnology: non-allergenic peanut  Gene knockout – no active gene present o Easy for model organisms – definitive test for the function of a gene/ protein o Biotechnology: non-spoiling tomato where they knockout the genes for ethylene production and thus you have a non-spoiling tomato  Gene addition – both genes are active o The basis of the biotechnology industry o Create an organism that expresses a novel protein o E.g. golden rice o Fish gene encoding a protein that virtually acts like anti-freeze  All three of these help in the advances of biotechnology Sequencing Genomes:  “The inside story of how these bitter rivals mapped our DNA, the historic feat that changes medicine forever” Why Sequence Genomes: 1. To understand how something works requires knowing all of the parts 2. Allows comparisons between organisms at the molecular level – we have genes that show similarities to yeast and bacteria – all organisms are very similar, even at the level of basic processes 3. Sequencing the human genome has/will identify the genetic basis for many diseases – if we were to sequence everyones genomes and track the mutation differences they have and the diseases they get, we can figure out which changes cause which diseases – if you sequence someone else and see mutation, you can predict the
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