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Recombinant DNA Technology.docx
Recombinant DNA Technology.docx

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Western University
Biochemistry 2280A
Chris Brandl

Recombinant DNA Technology Genetic EngineeringDefn The techniques by which DNA fragments from different sources can be recombined to make new molecules with unique featuresRDT is moving genes around to get DNA molecule to make something the way you want them to do itSynthetic biology the construction of new biological parts and systems and or the redesign of existing natural systems for useful purposes Q Humans have manipulated the genomes of other organisms for 1000s of years TRUE People have been manipulating the DNA of organisms for thousands of years What is so novel about Recombinant DNA Technologyplant crop and dog breeding are exampls of humans manipulated the DNA of other organisms Classical genetic techniques to manipulate DNA are Classical genetics Slow limited by the breeding time of the organism and chance genetic eventsLimited to breeding speciesRecombinant DNA technologyRDT is rapid and has virtually no restrictions limitations to the type of molecules that can be made It can be as fast as a few days in some organisms Classical approaches require these 2 things to go on that makes them slow and somewhat limited In contrast RDT is rapid with no restrictions Manipulating genes is an old story but RDT of doing it is a new technologyImplications of RDTResearchBiotechnologyResearch RDT is the most powerful tool in understanding cellular and molecular function RDT was critical in genome sequencing projects To understand molecular structure and function RDT is one of the most valuable toolsA large part of understanding of structures and interaction networks have all been done through recombinant techniques Biotechnology Defn The use of organisms to do work for man Modern Biotechnology relies heavily on Recombinant DNA TechnologyMedicineDrug production and design Human Insulin Human Growth Hormone VaccinesInterleukins many othersIn many drugs they are the result of RDT Human insulin was recombinantly expressed in bacteriaHas a huge impact in medicineAll of the drugs are made by RDT Insulin is a great example of the power of this Diagnosis of Disease detect pathogens and disease causing genes through their DNA signaturesIn medicine RDT is also crucial in diagnosis of disease Isolate the RNA from the blood do reverse transcription PCRand then perform gel electrophoresisThere are many other examples to use RDT to see if people are carrying disease Genetic counseling does an individual carry a disease related allele RDT also allows for genetic counseling using PCR Theres also a huge potential for gene therapy based on RDTPotential for gene therapy Many diseases result from having a defective geneWe can add back functional genes to cure disease Get the genes back in the right place so they dont cause other diseases AgricultureProduction of crops with unique featuresPest resistant corn Bt corn resistant to the european corn borerVitamin A enhanced rice golden riceNonspoiling tomatoesNonallergenic peanutsCold resistant cropsRDT is also important in plants These are all things we can do with genetic engineeringManufacturing New products For example spider silk More efficiently For example detergents RDT has also improved manufacturing Some of them are pretty trivial like deturgentsEnviro friendly biofuels Production of novel molecules in plants
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