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Biochemistry 2280A
Christopher Brandl

Lecture 1 Gene Expression ● Human genome encodes ~25000 different protein encoding genes ● In any one cell type ~10 000 are expressed at various levels; different cells will express different genes as they will require different proteins for specified functions ● The expression of the correct genes is essential for growth and differentiation of cells Different Cell Types Express Different Genes ● The differences in the gene expression of cells is what differentiates them Significance of Gene expression ● Many diseases are due to altered expression of one or more genes ● By manipulating gene expression, we have the potential to prevent or reverse disease The Central Dogma ● DNAis transcribed into the RNA, which is then translated into protein ● Gene expression in its simplest form Steps at which gene expression can be regulated in a eukaryotic cell Transcription ● Initiation ● Elongation ● Termination RNAProcessing ● RNAediting ○ Some of the genes can change ● 5’capping ● Splicing ● 3’polyadenylation mRNAexport ● to be functional, the mRNAmust be exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm ○ this export is highly regulated Translation: mRNA is decoded into protein ● Initiation ● Elongation ● Termination mRNAdegradation ● level at which mRNA transcribed ● level of with mRNAdegrades Protein modification ● Acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, cleaving of protein etc. ● The modifications are essential for the protein to be active and functional Protein degradation ● Again, depends of rate of synthesis and rate of decay of the protein Note, the first step in a biological process is often highly regulated as it saves energy; the reason being that you save energy by avoiding unnecessary processes · Transcription being the first step is thus highly regulated as it the first step in the expression of a gene Why is there an RNAstep in Gene E
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