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Acetyl CoA Part 2

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Course Code
Biochemistry 2280A
Eric Ball

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16 – Acetyl-CoA part 2: Fatty acids, ketone bodies, and biosynthesis Release of acetyl-CoA from fatty acids storage • Low glucose conditions • Breaks down triaglycerols in adipocyte; lipase will break the fatty acids off glycerol • Fatty acids go to liver and muscle, NOT brain ○ Converted to acetyl-CoA via β -oxidation • Glycerol foes to liver ○ Fuel for gluconeogenesis Activation of fatty acids in cytosol • Fatty acyl-CoA Is transported into the mitochondrial matrix; driven by the hydrolysis of ATP β -oxidation of fatty acids in matrix • Fatty acid goes through a series of 4 cheimcal reactions  each set of reactions get an acetyl-CoA, and NADH, and FADH an2 an acyl-CoA that is 2 carbons shorter. Net reaction for acyl-CoA with:2N” carbons: Acyl-CoA + N-1 FAD + N-1 NAD+ + N-1 CoA  N Acetyl Co-A (enters CAC or in liver made ketone b+ (N-1 FADH +2N-1 NADH) ETC FADH c2mes from different sources  Each FADH gi2es electrons to Q to make QH , but2using different protein complexes β -oxidation of fatty acids: special cases • Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids yields fewer FADH a2d may consume NADPH • Oxidation of “odd chain” fatty acids yields one propinyl-CoA, which enter the CAC as succinyl-CoA Ketone Bodies  How acetyl-CoA is transported from liver to other tissues • Brain usually likes glucose but in starvation will switch over to ketone bodies • Breaking down tricylglycerides during fasting, most acetyl-CoA made in the liver will be made into ketone bodies to be sent to the brain • Once in the brain transferred back to acetyl-CoA and goes into CAC • Muscle will also pick up ketone bodies – selfish Fatty Acid Biosynthesis • High glucose conditions – storing energy as fats
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