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Biochemistry 2280A
Eric Ball

TranscriptionIthe first step in a biolgocal process is often highly regulated as it saves energy requires in the subsequent steps if you regulate the DE step the cell would consume 2 atp unnecessarilyIf late step requires atpand its regualted laterit will use that energybut if its regulated earliercell would save that energy Saves the energy required in the subsequent stepsAB ATP to ADPC DE 2 ATP to 2 ADP Transcription is the first step in gene expression and is a highly regulated event Because transcription is the first step it is often highly regulatedMany genes are regulated at level of transcriptionMany diseases result from defects in transcription factors cancer The specificity of many transcription factors makes them logical drug targets Lot of cancer research is based on gene expression If we know many diseases are caused by transcription factor we can modify their activity and maybe cure the disease There are druggable targets that we can hit to reverse the diseaseMechanistically it is very similar to eukaryotic transcription but prokaryotic is somewhat simplerPromoter specific sequence to induce gene Many cases they are upstream of geneTerminator dna sequence required stop transcitipion We have signals to start transcitipn and we have signals to stop transciription in dna itself Operon bacterial specificin bacteria we have group of genes clustered togetherWe have typical bacterial operon 3 protein encoding genesxyzthis makes up operon they are transcibed from common promoter and they have common terminator We have transcript that starts at1trans start site Trans stops at terminatorTrans start site is 1 base upstream from this is 1no 0 beside 1 is 2They make transcirtion starts at 1 transcritpion stops at terminator In gene terminatortrans1 and 1 but no 0Organized into operons 3 protein encoding genes xyz operon may have more or less than this Start site of transcriptioncalled 1 Downstream is 2 upstream is 1 there is no 0 RNA shown on topstarts at plus 1 Green is the promotor sequence to make RNA Shown in red is the terminator where transcription stopsThe Bacterial Promotor Focus on promotor There are two ksey sequence elemtns in a typical bacterial promotorTataat is the 10 relative to startprinbow box All bacterial promters have variation of that sequence at 10
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