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Biochemistry 2288A
Derek Mc Lachlin

TEXTBOOK PAGES topic pages introduction 1-6, 11-22, 26-35 1. central dogma 72-73 2. amino acids 121-140 3. protein structure 120, 138-143 3. protein function 89-92, 99-103, 5. enzyme catalysis 140-143, 146-148, 152-153 6. protein purification 164-167 INTRODUCTION eukaryotes > have a membrane-inclosed nucleus - larger 80s ribosomes - have membrane-inclosed organelles - DNA associated with histone proteins - cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic streaming prokaryotes > do not have a membrane-inclosed nucleus (instead nucleoid) - smaller 70s ribosomes - no membrane-inclosed organells - DNA not associated with histone proteins - no cytoskeleton or cytoplasmic streaming prokaryotes are the most diverse of cells > bacteria and archaea ORGANELLES nucleus - information storage of the cell > double-membraned (nuclear envelope) mitochondria - generates usable energy from food to power the cell > double-membraned > have their own DNA > harness energy from oxidation of sugars to produce ATP (through cellular respiration) chloroplasts (plant cells only/ not fungi) > double-membraned > have their own DNA > internal stacks of membranes containing green pigment chlorophyll > perform photosynthesis endoplasmic reticulum > site where most cell membrane components and materials for export from the cell are made golgi apparatus > receives and chemically modifies molecules made in the ER lysosomes > intracellular digestion > releases nutrients from food particles; breaks down molecules for recycling or excretion peroxisomes > vesicles that provide contained environment for hydrogen peroxide reactions cytosol is a concentrated aqueous gel of large and small molecules > main site of chemical reactions fundamental to cell existence - ex. manufacture of proteins CYTOSOL VS. CYTOPLASM - cytoplasm includes everything in the cell except the nucleus - cytosol is the soluble portion of the cytoplasm ribosomes > molecular machines that make proteins CYTOSKELETON > responsible for directed cell movement actin filaments are the thinnest > present
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